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Central Asia: what the followers of Nursi achieve?

In the Turkish newspaper “Zaman” there was article about development of the relations between Turkey and Kyrgyzstan. The author of the text Aydin Pazarci gave a special place in it to the Turkish schools which are open in the republic and work very actively. Here is very indicative fragment:

“With admiration the prime minister Satybaldiyev responded about the Turkish schools which function more than 20 years in Kyrgyzstan. Having mentioned that his son graduated from such educational institution, Satybaldiyev noted: “It is possible to tell a lot of things about the Turkish schools, but if to formulate briefly, the Turkish schools bring up the future of Kyrgyzstan, their pupils successfully represent our country on the international Olympic Games, schools make essential efforts that thanks to quality education and teaching, to approach Kyrgyzstan to the international standards. I hold up these schools as an example on every platform connected with education problems as it is possible to learn much from them in an education system and pedagogy. Other important aspect consists that along with the qualified training the schools pay special attention to the educational process connected with instilling by the pupil of love to parents, to the homeland, the nation, mankind. Our graduates of these educational institutions became today as employees of state institutions and are occupied with professional activity in the private sector. I believe that these schools at which the education is got by children of the Kyrgyz, Russian, Uzbek and other origin, will make an important contribution to tranquillity and stability of the world of the future”.

Our expert is the Candidate of Pedagogy, psychologist Vladimir Shkolny, the recognized expert in this perspective. Let's remember what the specialist of faculty of the international relations of the Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University spoke about the Turkish influence in an education system of Kyrgyzstan in interview to our portal:

- How the existence of the educational institutions working on foreign standards influences an education system?


- I have a friend, the Uzbek, he lives in Osh. Naturally, he sent the son to study to Turkey from the best motives. In five years the son returned and the father almost cries: “He left the Uzbek, but returned as the Turk!”. The essence is simple: the Americans prepare pro-American youth at the university and Turks – pro-Turkish. There is a normal brainwashing in order to receive the set result.

- But the same Turks place emphasis on business training. Is the policy here?

- How it isn’t?! The idea of Turkey is quite obvious – they want to head all Islamic world. It turns out the Third caliphate … Turkey itself lives on the German technologies and tries to dictate the policy in all Arab world. And Kyrgyzstan is interesting to Turkey first of all, as a sales market for the technologies of the lowest order which have been once received from Germany and already outdated and unnecessary. That isn't necessary for them, they direct here that some politicians here proudly proclaimed that we ahead of a planet… And then frank lobbying of the Turkish interests begins.

Vladimir Shkolny collects materials about the various religious organizations which actively work in the former federal republics of Central Asia for many years. He provided us a material about the religious movement “Nurcular”. According to a number of experts it sponsors and finances the educational process in some states in the form of the Turkish schools, lyceums and higher education institutions. Including Kyrgyzstan …

“Nurcular”: yesterday and today …

“Nurcular” (nursists– followers of Nursi or “Bediüzzaman”– means “The Wonder of the Age” in translation from Turkish, “fethullahcular” – Fethullah’s followers) is religious movement of the pan-Turkic and pan-Islamic orientation, organized as secret sect.

It is based in Turkey at the beginning of the XX century by one of the educated religious figures Said Nursi (1876-1960), the Kurd on a nationality who sought to develop and apply practice of traditional Sufi awards to the present.

In fundamental sources of the doctrine as those, the extremist appeals aren’t seen. Islam is propagandized without mechanical transfer in the present of a life, customs and traditions of Muslims of the past and slogans of creation of the world Caliphate. At the same time, the need of Sharia public administration locates, the idea of the adaptation of the world of Islam is carried to Muslims to existence in new conditions, for the purpose of opposition of Muslim unity to an impact of the West and the western culture.

After disorder of the Ottoman Empire and coming to power of the secular government Kemal Ataturk in the 1920th years, the activity of religious awards was forbidden. In 1921 after open performance in parliament against Ataturk's domestic policy and the secular device of the Turkish society. S.Nursi was condemned. He spent more than 23 years in prisons and exiles.

In 1950 the parliament of Turkey rehabilitated S. Nursi, his compositions began to be published officially and movement was legalized. Supporters of nursists started appearing in the ranks of different political parties and in the power.

Despite it, active opponents of nursists always were the representatives of political elite, first of all military as they traditionally were guided by the European way of life.

After the death of the movement founder it was allocated about six identical, structurally isolated directions of sect operating semi-legally by the network principle which were headed by his pupils.

In the early seventies in leaders of nursists there was imam of a mosque in Izmir Fethullah Gulen who together with other followers of S. Nursi published the collection “Risale-i Nur” from 14 books: “Belief and Person”, “Sincerity bases”, “Truth of soul eternity”, “Truth of belief”, “The guide for men”, “Belief fruits”, “Ramadan, thrift, gratitude”, “Munajat, a prayer, the third beam”, "Thirty three windows", “Brotherhood bases”, “A truth way”, “Musa's Staff”, “Short words”, “Brochure for patients”. In these books all aspects of life and activity of adherents are regulated.

Fethullah Gulen's vigorous missionary activity led to creation round him the powerful, vertically structured network organization which has become independent of other directions of a nursizm and channelized one more “fethullahcular”. Accurate hierarchy, strict discipline and illegality, aiming at vigorous propaganda, educational and economic activity are inherent in it. However, “old” followers of Nursi consider that he distorted Said Nursi's doctrine.

At the same time in 1971 F.Gulen was condemned for three years for activity, “directed on creation of the theocratic state in Turkey”. With arrival of Turgut Ozal to the management of the country, the followers of Nursi received a big freedom of action. In the Turkish newspapers it was noted that “Gulen's star” started shining at the time of Ozal, he advanced to the forefront as one of leaders of the business world and the world of education of Turkey.

However, despite protection of the president and the increased influence in society, F.Gulen continued to be pursued by military. In 1980 when he was intended to be arrested, he disappeared. In 1986 he was detained by security forces, however at the initiative of the highest officials was released from custody.

Now, despite counteraction of secular part of society, Nursi movement gained considerable distribution and political support in Turkey and actively seeks to extend the influence on other countries. According to the Turkish mass media, from the middle of the 80th years there was sharp growth of the cumulative capital of followers of Nursi who reached more than 50 billion US dollars. The press wrote that the sect represents “the Islamic capital” of the countries for a long time which makes about 30% of its economy.

The followers of Nursi supervise hundreds plants and factories, some holding companies, social funds, system hyper and supermarkets. The main influence they have in an education system and a services sector where it is possible to attract the big mass of people, as though being “the state in the state”.

One of features of sect is existence of strong positions in mass media. They supervise some broadcasting companies led by “Zamanioly”, the publishing complex “Hakikat Kitabevi”, Zaman media holding with branches in many countries of the world, publishing of the same name the newspaper and the printing edition, Cihan news agency, movie firms. Besides, according to the Russian law enforcement agencies, financing arrives through under control of commercial and industrial company “Ihlas Holding” the structure of which includes the Ihlas Haber Ajansi news agency (IHA) having representation in the different countries, the weekly newspaper “Turkiye” and TGRT TV channel.

It is characteristic that official Ankara sees in strengthening of positions of “Nurcular” in Turkic-speaking CIS countries and regions of the Russian Federation the counteraction to growth of influence of Iran and Saudi Arabia and also prospect of expansion of own economic and political presence. Besides, according to a number of experts, Washington also gives support to organization of F. Gulen for development of so-called “scientific and secular (actually under control) Islam”.

At the same time, the secular and military circles of Turkey which are traditionally possessing considerable political influence in the country, didn't stop attempts of control of activity of secret sect. So, the following charges were repeatedly brought in mass media:

1. F.Gulen tries to get into important institutes of the power for soil preparation for government capture: legal, police and military structures.

2. Fight for final capture of the government goes already throughout the long period of time and takes place in strict secret.

3. Strategy of the leader of nursists consists to show that as if he and his supporters entirely support Kemal Ataturk's ideas in every possible way and an existing regime while actually prepares for Islamic revolution.

4. Gulen supervises the “huge” sums of money of the unknown origin, probably arriving from foreign intelligence services.

At schools, hostels and special student's houses of Nursi’s followers there is “brainwashing” of the youth.
Gulen and his followers represent more dangerous threat to the state than together taken “Kurdistan Workers' Party” and “Prosperity party”.

In 1999 the Turkish prosecutor's office characterized the activity of “Nurcular” as directed against the constitution and took out the resolution on its ban. In the country the number of the religious focused organizations and educational institutions was sharply reduced.

The personnel move also was carried out in the military country leaders. Despite of ranks and knowledge, over 170 officers were dismissed from structure of armed forces. In 2000 the military men managed to achieve the trial beginning of activity investigation of F.Gulen. The chief of the Turkish General Staff the general Kıvrıkoglu on August 30, 2000 made the statement with the requirement to bring the leader of Nursi’s followers to court “for long-term Islamic activity”. On the basis of systematic supervision over F.Gulen and the analysis of his sermons, the opinion was claimed that his charity is only the method of peacefully and thoroughly to prepare public opinion of Turkey for need of introduction of Sharia. Next day after the statement of the general, the prosecutor of court of a state security N. M. Yuksel provided in court the indictment concerning F.Gulen. In the conclusion it was said that “… with the participation of personnel, well prepared and trained at his schools, boarding schools and on courses, Fethullah Gulen intended to reject Ataturk's principles and to liquidate the secular republic”. The policy of deep penetration of nursists in the Turkish Armed forces was noted.

In charge also it was specified that “the purpose of creation of schools abroad by Gulen's community was to prepare the personnel of administrators for this state. To provide them to sympathy for Turkey in the future in which the Islamic state will be created by then.

Due to started trial, since 2000 F.Gulen hid in the USA where, according to military, actively cooperated with CIA. However after success on elections of Islamic “Justice and development parties” in November, 2002, F.Gulen's criminal prosecution stopped.
The last critique left on March 2, 2005; it was claimed that F.Gulen isn't the pupil of S. Nursi. In the same place N. Erbakan's idea (at the head legal Islamic movement) about legalization of “fethullahcular” by formation from them a new political party was quoted.

With coming to power of the government of R. Erdogan in 2006, the activity of “Nurcular” in the territory of the countries of accommodation of the Muslim and Turkic people considerably became more active.

“Nurcular” use the specific tactics taking sources in the Ottoman Empire and consisting in expansion of the imperial ideology in other people through opportunities of culture and religion.

The prime purpose of “Nurcular” abroad is introduction in an education system of countries of residence. For these purposes the network of lyceums is created in CIS countries, on the Middle East and South East Asia where the Turkish teachers among whom Nursi’s followers specially go. Training programs in these institutions include profound studying of history of the Turkic world and Turkey. Much attention is paid to studying of political, moral, personal qualities of pupils, studying of opportunities of their close relatives. The thought of commitment to Islamic values and the Turkish culture, understanding of Muslim unity is inculcated in the pupils actively.

The most perspective pupils goes on training to Nurcular educational institutions in Turkey or other states where they get at once under influence of activists of the sect supervising process of training and questions of the organization of a life of students, their financing and material security. This activity is carried out illegally, for involvement of students the network of free private boarding houses, hostels and special apartments of nursists in which in the hidden form at high organizational level methodical religious and brain washing is used.

Each living is obliged to submit to the appointed imams, to observe Muslim rules of behaviour, rigid control is made for students, things of students are exposed to secret examination, violation of a regime threatens with immediate eviction, foreigners are offered to pass a dedication ceremony in Islam. Some come under this influence and there are “zombies”.

In countries of residence of meeting of Nursi’s followers and involved persons occur by groups till 12-20 persons.

The meetings are weekly under the management of one of functionaries. As a rule, the apartments are chosen as venues and rare – the offices of the Turkish firms. During the meetings, the members of “Nurcular” read the Koran in the Turkish language, the instructor treats his separate provisions and such “pro-Gulen” comments often contradict the traditional dogmas of Islam. Along with discussion of religious questions, “everyday” issues are touched. In addition, at meetings of groups the tasks of collecting financial means are set for members of sect under the pretext of charity.

The task of “Nurcular” is the achievement of a dominant position in the regions of their activity by the way of gradual formation of pro-Turkish adjusted part of youth who gradually holds key posts to economy, science and administrative structures. For this purpose the sect takes root in political, scientific and business circles, seeks to increase number of the educational, trade and financial institutions in the region. At the same time, nursists “work” over adjustment of the necessary communications with representatives of the governments, parliaments and other administrative structures, by bribery, granting gifts, organization of the vacation abroad.

Now the structures of “Nurcular” work more than in 65 countries of the world. According to the Main command of Armed forces of Turkey, the number of their followers reaches 4 million people. However this sect never is registered as the religious organization.

The sect is forbidden in Uzbekistan and Russia under the names “Nurchilar” and "Nurjular" respectively.

Viewed : 715   Commented: 1

Author: Oleg Bayraliev

Publication date : 20 June 2013 00:36

Source: The world and we

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