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Hungary remembers atrocities of the soldiers in the territory of the USSR

This material has background. Some time the Hungarian mass media close to ruling party today, carry out the active reconsideration of historical events of World War II. It is easy even to guess the main thematic directions: the revisionism, representation of Hungary as the victim of aggressors and even more – emphasis on crimes of the Red Army. And it is a little unexpected by last anniversary of events on Don, marked the crash of the 2nd Hungarian army, the hearing added that the Hungarian soldiers not only heroically battled, but also protected the national interests in the territory of the USSR.

The special piquancy to such approach was added by that fact that the Hungarian head of the government V. Orban at campaign peak (read the headings by himself as “Hungarian soldiers on Don battled for the Homeland”) visited Moscow – to agree about activation of the economic relations. Nevertheless “active reconsideration” didn't remain unnoticed, as confirms this material. I ask to pay attention to the status giving Russia at the meeting of historians described below, as well as to words of the leader: there is no more expediency to hide in archives the testimony of invaders crimes. Special thanks to the Hungarian historians opposing the tendencies according to events of the past.

On the basis of archival documents

On March 5, 2013, the presentation of a series of documentary books “The Hungarian occupational armies in the Soviet Union. Archival documents 1941 – 1947” (editors: Tamash Krauss – Eve Maria Varga, Bp. L’Harmattan publishing house) passed in Koshuta club. The collection submitted: historian Peter Shiposh; historian Vasily Stepanovich Khristoforov, the head of department of registration and archival funds of FSB of Russia, the head of the Centre of publications of sources on the XX century stories; aesthete Akosh Siladi; historian Andrey Nikolaevich Artizov, archivist, the head of Federal Archival Agency; historian Gabor Dyoni.

Below we publish the shorthand report of Peter Shiposh performance.

Today the current situation on digression to history of the Hungarian participation in World War II, in particular connected with the tragedy of the 2nd army in a bend of Don is traced. One by one there are monographs, researches, diaries, memoirs, photo albums and other works in a similar genre. The most important line for them is the justification of military policy of Horthy regime and its apologetics, vulgo – a whitewash. It isn't necessary to conduct long research work for disclosure of area of the sources serving as tools for the argument. Rather attentively to study speeches of the Hungarian political and military leaders in critical 1941, especially in spring and summer months. The common characteristic feature of these documents is that authors unanimously declare the Hungarian participation in war against the Soviet Union as, so to speak, national interests of Hungary. The general infantry Henry Vert, the chief of a staff of the Hungarian army, wrote in the memoirs that participation is required “for the sake of territorial integrity of the state and also safety of the state and social system, our Christian outlook based upon a national basis obliges to it because in respect of the political union we finally decided on the Axis countries and our further territorial expansion depends on it”.

The head of the government László Bardossy, let Henry Vert's views also weren't alien to him, was against the voluntary offer of participation for tactical reasons. His opinion was shared also by Miklos Horthy. The head of state and the prime minister considered that it is necessary to wait for the German signal for the introduction in war because in that case it is possible to ask the counter concessions. But the Germans just didn't wish to do the offer because the district Banat for which Romania applied also was the only territory which they could promise as an award.

The stalemate between Berlin and Budapest was resolved by Kassa's bombardment. (Kosice is the city in Slovakia nowadays - the translator). The city in the north of Hungary, as we know, was bombed on June 26, 1941 by planes without identification marks, it was impossible to define the accessory of group of attacking planes, the secret remained unsolved to this day. Bardossy considered that the state accessory of planes bombing Kassa wasn’t so important. He considered as the main thing that the Hungarian staff coordinated the version according to which the planes attacking the city are Soviet and it proves that exactly the Germans wish the entry of Hungary in war. So, here it is a long-awaited sign, there was no place to further fluctuations any more. For the introduction in war it is impossible to adduce definitely that argument that the Soviet Union would pursue an aggressive policy against Hungary. Moreover, Moscow in the 1940-41st let know by unambiguous gestures about intentions to have good-neighbourhood.

It is undoubtedly that the participation in war had no relation to any Hungarian national interests. Hardly there will be more reliable witness than one of the most significant politicians of an era Istvan Bethlen. In the memoirs written in June of 1944th, he condemned foreign policy of Hungary of 1940-41 with bitter words. He considered that the Hungarian policy “began a series of fatal misses with accession to “Triple pact” when without any serious need and counter benefits we joined such union which was created for permission of questions between world powers. And took the first step in the accident direction …”.

Speaking about the introduction in war against the Soviet Union, Bethlen rejected promotion, “which was engaged in that involved us in war by drawing of a ghost of the Bolshevism on a wall. The Bolshevism, certainly, is danger to all Europe, but not calling of small Hungary to endow colour of the nation to take this threat away from Europe”. Bethlen saw the national purpose in that “again to sew the country cut on pieces. Unfortunately, in June of 941st we deviated from this axiom of national policy and we will expiate again bitterly made mistakes”.

The Hungarian historiography which is engaged in research of war against the Soviet Union, first of all directs the attention to fights of the Hungarian army on the Soviet-German front, and hardly is interested in activity of the Hungarian occupational armies. Since the fall of 1941st, as a part of the Western and East Occupational Group, 90 thousand Hungarian soldiers solved occupational problems on the area about 500 thousand square kilometres in territories of Russia and Belarus. Occupation meant the so-called “military application” in the back, practically hunting for guerrillas.

It is possible to learn about behaviour of the Hungarian parts from such witness as Joseph Goebbels, the authorized representative of Hitler. On May 18, 1942, the minister of promotion of the empire wrote the following about the fights passing in the Bryansk woods: “The Hungarian formations are at war to the south of this region. They need to occupy one village behind another. When Hungarians declare that they occupied one village, it usually means that there is no any inhabitant”.

It would be a serious mistake to claim that it is a question of separate cases, and there were no mass punishments over the peace population from the Hungarian party. The Hungarian guerrillas hunters regularly cooperated with the German groups. The sergeant of group of gendarmerie testified to it:

“In 1941st I entered a battalion 32/II and with this division in October of 1941st I entered on the Soviet territories of military operations … We replaced the German battalion and the German command assigned a task of fight against guerrilla groups to our division … In December of 1941st the German command sent a battalion of about 80 Soviet citizens for interrogation and then they should be destroyed. Interrogation of the Soviet citizens took place in the prison building … as the Soviet citizens didn't give evidences, they were subjected to awful tortures. I know it as from the building of prison the shouts and groans were heard. Together with shooting team we surrounded the Soviet citizens and led them to the place of execution.

When we reached the shell-holes which were near the tracks from hit of bombs, the captain gave the order to the Soviet citizens to undress. Some didn't obey the order, these people were undressed by members of shooting team, thus cruelly beating. Members of shooting team pushed together the Soviet citizens in shell-holes …”.

In 1942-1945 the Extraordinary State Commission “on establishment and investigation of crimes of fascist aggressors and their accomplices and the damage caused by them to citizens, collective farms, public organizations, the state enterprises and establishments of the USSR” worked in the Soviet Union. The Extraordinary State Commission on the basis of indications of 250 thousand witnesses made 54 thousand protocols only on murders and about 4 million on damage. The unbelievers are compelled to believe in reliability of documents already only because falsification of such huge number of a material or any other manipulation with it is impossible and unimaginable only for technical reasons. Documents contain authentic descriptions of murders of members of families, relatives, friends and colleagues, soldiers and prisoners of war, attestations of eyewitnesses about cruelties. Each protocol is the charge at the same time.

Testimonies, performances, letters of the survived Soviet and Hungarian citizens, card files of prisoners of war and other documents open terrible details of that activity in the course of which the Hungarian soldiers in the absence of the men mobilized in army with almost unimaginable cruelty physically exterminated generally the masses of the Soviet civilian population, old men, women, children, and also prisoners of war. It isn't casual that the local population a decade later to this day stores the memory of actions of Hungarians, and occasionally reminds of them to visitors to the Hungarian researchers and tourists … Permit to quote two documents. “According to the total report of the Extraordinary State Commission of March 28, 1945, only in 12 regions of the Chernigov area the Hungarian soldiers killed 38611 peace Soviet citizens. Shchors city was the centre of massacre where in prisons, parks, the woods – before big holes for the mass graves, made by persons taken to execution – after the most awful tortures executed many thousand people. In many places a burning was frequent way of execution. Victims mostly were old men, women and children, but they killed also the chest babies together with mothers. And Shchors was only one of places for execution”.

Gonved Ferenc Boldizhar (company 46/1.2. field mail 115/20) in the diary described just one of such “heroic action” which besides was proud: “When we came into the village, the first three houses were set fire by me. We killed the men, women, children, burned the village. Went further … Our magnificent hussars set fire to the village, the third company set fire by the rockets. Then we went on reconnaissance further. In time, which we carried out in investigation, the hussars burned six villages …”.

The opened documents do such assumptions, such formulations as justifications like “on the one hand – on the other hand”, that “excesses, crimes are inevitable in war”, that “it is possible to speak only about limited number of undisciplined soldiers”, “such incidents are inevitability of war”, etc. On the basis of archival sources we can define that the Hungarian parts in the seized Soviet territories between the 1941st and the 1945th carried out the genocide. On pages of the presented collection the documents open to us “Hungarian chapter” of Nazi genocide. These crimes as crimes against humanity won't be forgotten.

The genocide made by the Hungarian royal army in the Soviet territory still wasn't object of scientific researches and the conclusions made on their basis. The vacuum formed in this regard which can't be justified by lack of sources even before disclosure of the Soviet contemporary records. The documentation being in Archive Stories of Services of State Security and Military and historical Archive would be for the Hungarian researchers on hand. Surge in interest to a subject both in Hungary, and in the Soviet Union was paralyzed by political and ideological shackles and did it impossible. Party and government bodies except the idea of concerning the facts of massacre and robberies in the Soviet territories too delicate and kindling passion, inevitably generated intentions to investigate the Soviet crimes in the Hungarian territory. Therefore all this area of subject was tabooed as the crimes of the past didn't lead to intensity creation in the relations between the Soviet Union and newly made East European allies.

Access to the Soviet archives opens the opportunities and prospects of historical data on terrible and artful crimes about what it was possible to hope only earlier. Especially as the petty reasons connected with actual policy about expediency of investigation of historical events are handed over in junk.

This collection is innovative in own way. His founders did huge work over a lot of documents by their research, selection, streamlining, translation and creation of the scientific device necessary for interpretation. Undoubtedly, the base of the facts of this collection won't cause undivided pleasure and approval in certain circles of public opinion, journalism, historical science. But nevertheless will open a curtain of silence behind which the gloom is always concealed.

Afterword of the translator. In order the reader could understand better about what tendencies of a modern statement of history spoke the acting, once again I will specify on early given materials from the Hungarian mass media.

Viewed : 1852   Commented: 0

Author: Perevodika

Publication date : 14 April 2013 01:00

Source: The world and we

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