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It is easy to stir up a fire on the Caucasus. Especially for Mikhail Saakashvili …

The people of the Caucasus from the moment of Mikhail Saakashvili's arrival to the power perceive him already as permanent crisis in a human appearance for a long time. Undoubtedly, that a dominant role in such relation has played the Georgian aggression against South Ossetia, which go down in history as “War of 08.08.08”. After the reception of natural repulse, having become famous for the whole world for such “heroic” act as chewing of a tie and panic run from a sound of the Russian attack planes, Saakashvili has no other exit as to start to kindle the international discord both in Georgia and in neighboring countries in every possible way. Having added to it the active Georgian militarization, we will receive as a result the aggressive state headed by the person, not only successfully untied and there and then lost war, but also thirsting the immediate revenge …

Now, as the observers notice, “during the discussion of the themes of South Ossetia and Abkhazia, the Georgians have the mass chauvinistic psychosis, in the basis of which there are the wounded feelings of the suffered nation which had the defeat in two wars. Here it is necessary to put the attempts of the violent Christianization of the Adzharian Georgians and actual liquidation of the Adzharian autonomy. Today the anti-Armenian and anti-Azerbaijan moods are strenuously inflated in “democratic” Georgia, till now there are no effective measures on repatriation of the Meskhtian Turks etc.

Historical excursus

The comparison of the Caucasus with a huge raging copper in which the nations and the people mixed up for thousand years is rather extended. It would seem, the sensible politicians should understand it, but this quality, possibly, is inaccessible to mister Saakashvili that has once again proved on an example of the Meskhetian Turks.

The Meskhetians have the self-name “Ahiska” but it speaks little to the scientists who can't establish the history of an origin of subethnos till now. However, the certain communication is traced back with Akhaltsikhe, the main city of Meskhetiya and with Samtskhe, small region in the southwest of Georgia.

There is a hypothesis that the majority of the Meskhetians (more than 90 %) are the descendants ethnic of Early Turks (Turks-farmers) and Terekyals (the shepherds speaking on the Azerbaijan language) and the minority (about 10 %) are the descendants of the native Georgians and Armenians (Hemshins), turned in XVII-XVIII centuries to Islam and used the Turkish language.

However, there is also other theory according to which the Meskhetians were descended from the combination of the Osman Turks who have settled in a number of areas of modern Georgia, with the Georgian tribe of Meskhs. They turned to be as a part of the Russian empire after a number of the Russian-Turkish wars and finally in 1829 year, with transition under the Russian crown of Akhaltsikhe and Akhalkalak regions.

According to the main provisions of a modern Georgian historiography, the area of the Mesheti ridge under the control of a feudal clan of Dzhakeli has become a boundary region dividing the sphere of influence of the Georgian tsars and Turkish sultans. The mass migrations caused by invasion of the Mongols in XIII century and a march of Tamerlane in 1395, have increased the number of the Turkic tribes in the southwest borders of Georgia and especially in Meskhetiya (rather poorly protected from intrusion from the south) that has facilitated subsequently the assimilation of a part of the population with the OsmanTurks.

The territory of Samtskhe-Saatabago (Meskheti) has appeared in an area of influence of the Turks after the entry in 1576 to the structure of Ottoman empire. The assimilation of native population with the Turks was both in religion and in language. The transition to Islam was encouraged in every possible way; the informal Turkish language became the language of international communication in Ottoman empire in the districts with the mixed population.

The Turkish language was already native for the Meskh Muslims to the second half of XIX century, becoming the communication language in a family. By the end of 1930 year, the Meskh Muslims had the general ethnonim “Meskhetian Turks”; the local Meskhs (orthodox from a XIX century) named them as “Turks”. Thus, many people took part in ethnogenesis of the Meskhetian Turks but the exact parity of their shares remains a theme for discussions. The Meskhetian Turks adhere to the pro-Turkish version of the ethnogenesis in the overwhelming majority, i.e. they feel themselves as the Turks, instead of forbidden and Islamic Georgians or Armenians. Meanwhile, the Meskhs is a subethnos the Georgians who are the orthodox Christians and in any way don't connect themselves with the Meskhetian Turks and the Sunni Muslims speaking the Turkic language.

As it is known, in the USSR from 1928 to 1937, the Meskhetian Turks were forced to specify themselves as the Georgians and to take the Georgian surnames. From the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, almost all adult male population of Meskhetian Turks (more than 40 thousand, 26 thousand of whom were lost at the front) has been mobilized in Soviet Union. In 1944 year the Meskhetian Turks (together with the Kurds and the Hemshins) have been moved from the territories in Georgia to Kazakhstan, Kirghizia and Uzbekistan according to the decision of the State Defence Committee of the USSR No. 6279 of July 31, 1944.

Stalin propagation has specified the formulation, “Because the considerable part of the population has been connected with the inhabitants of frontier areas of Turkey with the blood relations and showed the emigratory moods and also on charge in complicity in enemies, who were engaged in contraband and service as s source of recruitment of espionage elements and plantings of gangster groups” for Turkish intelligence agencies. In total more than 90 thousand persons have been evicted.

The small groups of Osman Turks have quickly enough mixed up also in the new places of residence with them – the natives of the central Turkey, living in Abkhazia and Adzharia and deported from there to Central Asia in 1948-49 years. The Meskhetian Turks have been dispersed on separate settlements in various areas of Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan and Kirghizia as “special settlers” (that is without the right of change of a residence). In 1956 the Meskhetian Turks were with free of the restrictions on special settlements and the part of them began to come back in various regions of the Caucasus, in particular to Kabardino-Balkaria and to the North Caucasus. But the majority remained in the rendered habitable places of Central Asia and Kazakhstan.

At the 8th congress which has taken place on June 18, 1976 in village Erokko in Kabardino-Balkaria, the Meskhetian Turks have put forward the program of stage-by-stage homecoming based on refusal of indemnification for loss of real estate and building of habitation by forces of the youth brigades.

In capacity of informal but principle condition of returning, the management of the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic still then has put forward a recognition of the Georgian origin and corresponding change of surnames by the Meskhetian Turks that at once has split the Meskhetian Turks into the pro-Georgian “conformists” ready, owing to a hopelessness, to accept this condition and “irreconcilable” Meskhetian Turks, who were not ready for such step under no circumstances.

The disputes proceeded up to “perestroika” in the USSR but “irreconcilable” Meskhetian Turks appeared to be much more. At 9th congress of the Meskhetian Turks which has taken place on July 28, 1988 in village Psyhod Kabardino-Balkaria, the position of “pro-Georgian conformists” has been condemned. And still the first families of the Meskhetian Turks, who were ready to become “Georgians”, have gone to Georgia. However, not to admit the compact residing, they were directed to the most various regions of the country.

As a result of the growth of ethnic pressure in the overpopulated part of Fergana valley of Uzbekistan, the blood population has begun the pogroms of the Meskhetian Turks in June, 1989. It has caused the mass evacuation of the Meskhetian Turks from Uzbekistan to Russia, Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan. In 1990th years Georgia also has started to accept the Meskhetian repatriates but on condition that they would declare the Georgian ethnic accessory.

It has caused the immediate protests among the Armenian population of a province of Samtskhe-Javakheti (the Georgian traditional toponymy, in Armenian – Javakhk) and the reception has been stoped. Azerbaijan has accepted some thousand of the Meskhetians, however the further resettlement also has been stopped in view of a problem with refugees from Nagorno-Karabakh. Though it is known, that Baku had the plan to occupy Karabakh and the regions adjoining to it with the Meskhetians: the appearance of the Meskhetian Turks in the Armenian settlements who went through the ethnic cleanings (Getashen, Martunashen, settlements of Shaumyanovsk region etc.) has been fixed in 1991-1992 years.

The special law is in force in Turkey which simplifies the reception of the Turkish citizenship by the Meskhetian Turks. However the settling of repatriates was conducted with essential reservations – to the poor east regions of the country with the prevailing Kurdish population. The similar “meeting on the historical native land” has disappointed many Meskhetians who haven't gone on the taken away territories and were settled in other regions without permission, mainly, in the cities of Bursa and Igdir.

And here Georgia appeared on the scene…

In 1999 it has undertaken before the Council of Europe on returning of the Meskhetian Turks. And some years ago the parliament has passed the law on their repatriation.

The Meskhetians consider themselves as the Turks. And they are considered as the Georgians in Georgia. According to different data, there are from seven to thirteen thousand ancestors who wish to return home. But it is not known while, which regions the Meskhetians can occupy. It is supposed that the majority of them will be settled in Kakheti and also in the villages adjoining to Tskhinvali region. The Meskhetians want to return to the Georgian region Samtskhe-Javakheti, whence they were deported in the days of the Second World War.

Leon Rukhadze notices that “… there would be much more the people who wish to move to Georgia, if the bureaucratic procedures established by the Georgian legislation”.

Saakashvili is “your guy” or one’s guy only for the American friends but for the Meskhetians he is, perhaps, the malicious stepfather. Judge by yourself, here that Rukhadze tells:

- The Meskhetians Turks need to collect a heap of documents, among which there are absolutely fantastic, for handing in an application of the repatriate status. For example, the documents “certifying the fact of violent resettlement”.

Possibly, Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin or at least the members of the Political bureau of that time knows how to get such document and what it should represent itself and whose signatures should be on the abovementioned document ….

It is necessary to pass “the test concerning the civil integration” and “knowledge of the Georgian language”. But thus anybody stir a finger to create any centers or courses on language studying. And the decision of the ministry of refugees and settling - to give graciously the status of the repatriate or to refuse him – is definitive and isn't subject to the appeal.

But there were many other problems which the Meskhetian Turks had who have already moved to Georgia. Many of them can't receive the Georgian citizenship till now, to formalize the houses, bought, by the way, on their own money. The Georgian state has tried to withdraw from incurring any financial obligations to “new” compatriots in general. Here it is not the time for houses and for apartments; live as you want.

It is quite clear that the law on returning of the Meskhetian Turks is accepted on maniacal political grounds. The aspiration though somehow to “lean” against the European Union or the NATO was and remains the main goal for a management of Georgia. And that circumstance that the acceptance of such laws demands, at least, the knowledge, preparation and money, don't undertaken in mind. The main thing it to inform the whole world on the “adherence to democratic ideals” and, of course, to receive the money at the best!

According to the law of repatriation, granting of the status of the repatriate doesn't involve the right to property returning in Georgia, neither habitation granting, nor social guarantees, neither courses on language training, nor guarantees to get a job. To put it mildly, the Meskhetians, who live, for example, in Russia, don’t like such order. Basically those who remember Georgia, who has the sense of nostalgia, want to return. Young people are excited little by that; first of all they are interested in prospects and social guarantees.

The General director of the Council of Europe of political problems and democracy Jean Louis Loran has already expressed his opinion concerning the inconsistency of Georgia as the subject of international law. He has directly accused Georgia that it hasn't coped with the obligations taken on and the terms of returning of the Meskhitians established by the Council of Europe.

One of “experts” concerning the national minorities in parliament of Georgia of T.Lomsadze has acted with self-justifications whether because of such hail from the Council of Europe or under own initiative: a pier, the money and the use of world experience are necessary for repatriation of the Meskhitians. It is possible to think that earlier it wasn't known or someone prevented to a management of Georgia to use the world experience…

The arrest of the citizen of Russia, namely the president of public organization of the Meskhetian Turks “Vatan” Suleyman Barbakadze put everything into place last year in Akhaltsikhe. He was accused of swindle and forging of documents. The classical “everyday life” which simply wasn’t and what, at desire it is possible to find in the most insignificant transaction with real estate, has poured out in unnaturally rigid sentence – eleven years of imprisonment.

It is known already about many cases when the Meskhitians weren’t let to the territory of Georgia under different pretext or turned out for its limits. But it is possible to explain a sentence of Barbakadze only by the political problem put before the court – to show, who is the owner in the Georgian house, initially to beat off the Meskhitians any desire to settle in Akhaltsikhe and to buy the real estate there.

Demonstratively cruel sentence, taken out to the elder and seriously ill person is the fact of direct judicial reprisals. The fact is so obvious that gave rise to proper response of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia. In the statement of the representative the Ministry of Foreign Affairs it is told that “the judgement is the sabotage display by the Georgian authorities of the international obligations and acknowledgement of system non-observance of human rights. There was every reason to suspect from the very beginning that the case of the Russian citizen has custom-made political character and is connected with his activity on rights realization of the Meskhitians on repatriation”.

However, even the western sensible observers negatively speak of “democrat” Saakashvili for a long time: so, in article “Georgia: when the democracy will start to yield the notable fruits?” it is remembered all mysterious murders which have occurred during the governing of Saakashvili:

For example, in particular, why Zhvaniya has been killed. Even the Georgian observers who were making the comments on tragic leaving from life of the prime minister, noticed time and again that between him and Saakashvili and also two “baby birds” of the present president – the Minister of Internal Affairs and Safety Vano Merabishvili and the ex-Minister of Defence (and nowadays – the oppositionist and even the political refugee) Irakli Okruashvili repeatedly flashed the rough disputes. The question was a subject of disagreements - how Georgia should solve the problems with South Ossetia and Abkhazia?

It is well-known that Zhvaniya was the ardent opponent of transfer of process of settlement on power rails while Saakashvili, Merabishvili and Okruashvili literally demanded the war – at least against South Ossetia. And that has occurred in August, 2008.

So is it possible to consider the politicians as democrats who ignore the right of the nations to self-determination? Certainly, the attempts of creation of mononational and as a matter of fact, the nationalist state were observed earlier in Georgia. The observers remember well the attempt of the first (nowadays the dead) ex-president of Georgia Zviad Gamsakhurdia who has put forward a notorious principle, “Georgia is for the Georgians”.

However, both Saakashvili and continuing to sponsor him the American neoconservatives have proclaimed Georgia for the whole world as “democracy beacon” on the Caucasus. And as a matter of fact, the same Americans have pushed Saakashvili on the use of revanchist militaristic rhetoric and making the people fool, raising the most low nationalist passions in hundred thousands simple Georgians.

If to analyze the previous events, so it is possible to ascertain that all these events are quite natural. Saakashvili has counted on physical elimination of political competitors, radical strengthening of reprisals concerning any opposition and far-outers. He has seen the political rescue in chauvinism and nationalism forcing, kindling of the anti-Russian hysteria and searches of every possible “enemies” on whom it is possible to direct the amplifying discontent of the population. Russia had been declared as the external enemy and the internal enemies, namely “scapegoats” Saakashvili has found in ethnic minority and pro-Russian focused opposition, having accused all of them together of “nation treachery”. All power of state machinery is directed against them now.

For example, the data received from the special services of Georgia have filtered into mass-media of some countries that the Minister of Internal Affairs Merabishvili has made “shooting list” and has put on the wanted list more than 40 top politicians from among the leaders of the Armenian organization “Unified Javakhk” and the Azerbaijan organization NAAG (National Assembly of the Azerbaijanians of Georgia). By the way, its chairman Gyulmamedov in 2009 declared that the physical liquidation of all active workers of NAAG prepares under the secret plan of Merabishvili.

It is known also that as a result of the policy of Saakashvili’s office, the Greek community of Georgia has been almost liquidated – the most part of the Greeks has left the country today. Thus Georgia, the edition notes, doesn't hasten to take the law on ethnic minority and to ratify the European convention on regional languages and languages of national minorities. The answer to a rhetorical question, “What are the Meskhetian Turks for to a modern Georgian management in such situation?”, is quite clear – certainly, they aren't necessary!

In summary the edition does the deplorable, but absolutely objective conclusion:

“Georgia will never be democratic with its present president. The last events of June, 2011 with the bloody suppression of opposition meeting are an eloquent proof that Mikhail Saakashvili won't leave voluntary. Hence, any change of the power here is possible only with the help of violent way which will inevitably lead to the next human victims”. You will not tell more precisely…

Only who will put out a fire on the Caucasus? The USA have a universal technique which they use worldwide with great success: firstly the excitements in the form of “color” revolutions are initiated, then, the country leaders are accused of “disproportionate use of force” after that the conflict becomes international and the armies of the USA and their allies appear there. It is obvious that Saakashvili's role consists in stirring up the fires, and absolutely other forces here plan to be engaged in rough imitation of struggle against fire. And the Meskhetian Turks, as well as some other people of the Caucasus and not only of the Caucasus, are the small coin in a global political game. People should know about it.

Viewed : 2324   Commented: 7

Author: Ираклий Гогоберидзе

Publication date : 15 September 2011 23:22

Source: The world and we

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