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Majlis speculation on idea of the “native” population conducts to escalation of conflicts in the Crimea

The Crimean Tatars almost completely satisfied the needs for the land plots and housing. But the subject of their arrangement again and again rises by Majlis, the illegal organization applying for a role of parliament of the Crimean Tatar people. The ethno - political scientist, the Candidate of History, the associate professor of sociology and social sciences of the Crimean State Medical University Victor Kharabuga tells about the reasons of such situation, about features of activity of Majlis.

- How strong impact has the Crimean Tatar community on a social and internal political situation in the Crimea? What role in its activity is played by Majlis?

Demographically because of high birth rate it is rather young community though the press sometimes exaggerates its rates of growth. But they are really higher, than at Russian and other ethnos. Influence of this community is quite considerable. Rather big community which makes about 11% of the population of the Autonomous Republic moved to the Crimea for short term. Moving which most happened in the late eighties - in the 90th years, was quite difficult process when masses of people came, attendance order resolved an issue of the settlement, many had no work. People had different means - someone had very big, someone hadn’t at all. But it is impossible to compare this resettlement, for example, with resettlement of Algerians to France. The Soviet people with the Soviet mentality, with good knowledge of the Russian moved. As a rule, it is asymmetric bilinguals - the main language for them is the Russian and in a family they, often, but to a lesser extent speak the Tatar.

Therefore it is impossible to say that there was an invasion of certain absolutely alien community. It was the graduates of the Soviet schools and institutes who studied according to programs, general for all country. Therefore in principle it is incorrect to claim that they experienced difficulties on adaptation in the Ukrainian society. If to be exact they were integrated not into Ukrainian, but into the Crimean society. They move not to Lvov and not to Kharkov where there would be absolutely other problems. They move to the Crimea where the Russian language and the Russian culture are dominant. And these 24 years of resettlement showed that their adaptation happens quite easily. There were no and aren’t any special barriers to it.

The main problem consisted in politicization. At that time there was sharp politicization of the population and ethnic and confessional groups. And they began to make concrete political demands. There was elite which were pressed down earlier by old system. It was very characteristic for the Crimean Tatars and Majlis. They started self-organizing on resettlement places. Therefore their moving to the Crimea wasn't spontaneous at all. It was directed by this political organization, Majlis which made the demand – the creation the Tatar statehood in the Crimea. That, naturally, created a field for the ethnic conflict which always arises if one of ethnic groups insists on the priority in powers of authority in this or that territory. Therefore there was no one who opposed to resettlement of the Crimean Tatars - these are the people applying for leadership in this group, including Mustafa Jemilev and Refat Chubarov made such demands which caused a natural protest.

They created Majlis, declared it as own parliament that caused quite clear reaction in power - two power bodies can't exist in one territory. Besides, the declaration on the sovereignty of the Crimean Tatar people was adopted. And this document though it anywhere officially is recorded, is operating from the point of view of Majlis. And as Jemilev and Chubarov declared to last president Yushchenko - any of norms in these documents won't change. And if such document is present, so there is also a reason for the permanent conflicts.
But ordinary Tatars, unlike politicians, adapted quite easily at household level.

Some bought rich houses in favourable places, to whom many inhabitants of Western Europe can envy. Poorer settled more simply and the poorest started lodging not on the Southern Coast, but in other regions of the Crimea, but received any arrangement too. Their problems, housing and other, differ nothing from problems of other part of the population. Some difficulties existed, but with efforts of Tatars and with the state help they were almost eliminated for 22 years. The sites were allocated to immigrants, the simplified regime of obtaining nationality was established. Therefore the present requirements of politicians from Majlis about “rights” are, first of all, the requirements about political privileges. Requirements about new compensations aren't proved- during the war practically each citizen suffered in the property respect.

Thus the statement about genocide of the Crimean Tatars is incorrect. The argument is often given that they were taken out in heated goods van. But then all country went in that way. By the way, the management of the Crimean regional committee went in compartments. Therefore, actually it was special resettlement, but not genocide at all. Of course, this is the extraordinary measyre, probably, unfair for many Crimean Tatars. But this measure similar to those which in the USA the government of democratic president Roosevelt applied to Japanese. Therefore it is impossible to speak about any extreme features in this situation.

The Crimean Tatar community arrived to the Crimea as organized and consolidated. Originally they actively used rigid, manifest methods of fight - demonstration, blockade meetings which sometimes reached direct collisions. In reply in relation to them the power methods were applied. But it isn't necessary to say that it created a barrier between Tatars and other population of the Crimea at household level. Children study at one schools and institutes, people live in the neighbourhood and came into contacts. And here there are no any slums as in Brazil or Bombay where a certain ethnic group separately lives. That self-captures nowadays turned into places of compact accommodation in which the problems of provision of the necessary facilities solved at the expense of the state arrangement - communications were carried out, roads were asphalted, schools and obstetric points were under construction.

It would be possible to solve Problems of the Crimean Tatars as well as all other problems in the country much better. But our state, unfortunately, is on the third place from below on a standard of living in Europe. Therefore all objective difficulties are imposed on this ethnic group.

Thus the western mass media for some reason constantly declare about the difficulties only of this group. And the heads of the illegal organization “majlis”, achieving the special political situation, constantly speak about problems. In a community the influence of this organization remains, but the higher the level of living of people, then it becomes less. The main part of the Crimean Tatar population is already satisfied in receiving the sites - now there is their movement in the Crimea in more favourable zones.

- Is this rhetoric concerning disorder of the Crimean Tatars more a political step from Majlis for obtaining own political dividends?

It is valid so. That the organization would be supported, it is necessary to see that it brings any concrete advantage to the person. One thing is conversations, another - by means of the organization to receive any material resources. It is hardly any certain public or political organization which promises, for example, a ground or to improve their living conditions to the Russians in Ukraine. And here the members of Majlis insist on it. But not from own means, but demand that it was made of means of the state.

Therefore they find support, will organize people on an action near the Supreme Council, usually during any memorials, use concentration of people for expression of the slogans. These are manifest methods of fight and the Majlis is able to do it well. But all activity is localized within this ethnic group as well as selective support. They can't give more than 150 thousand voices to any of candidates for president. Thus they can vote for one candidate and to demand implementation of promises from the winner against whom they worked which that candidate gave to them. And then say that owing to their ethnic origin in any case any president has to put their interests as the primary.

- How closely the Majlis cooperates with non-government organizations and other organizations financed by the western countries?

The Majlis has a chronology of their activity. There it is possible to see to whom, first of all, Jemilev and other politicians contact, where they go, what questions raise and who supports them in these questions, in particular, in the international organizations. It is, first of all, the countries of NATO and Turkey in priority. Jemilev is accepted there not only at the level of the president and the government, but also at the level of the General Staff of Turkey which is the shadow government of the country. He is also treated in the Turkish hospitals. Possibly, it doesn't turn out without contacts with the Turkish intelligence services.

- In what the influence of Turkey is expressed on a situation in the Crimea?

In my opinion, the influence is small. Despite the existence of the Crimean Tatar community, Turkey never undertakes actions and its officials don't allow statements which would offend the sovereignty of Ukraine. But active economic and cultural penetration, creation of educational institutions, support of the various organizations is thus observed. It is quite official line creating the Turkish lobby favourably to participate in development projects of the South Coast, construction of hotels, other objects in the territory of the Crimea and Ukraine. But it is impossible to tell that they officially pursue a certain pan-Turkic policy. There are, of course, radical organizations as, for example, “Gray wolves”, but they are forbidden in the territory of Turkey too. The activity happens within the Ukrainian legislation at official level. Certainly, Turkey seeks to strengthen the Crimean Tatar community of brothers in faith and culturally close people to them. But such policy is pursued by many countries.

- How widely the Hizb ut-Tahrir organization carries out the activity in the Crimea, for extremism forbidden in many countries?

This organization work long ago and openly has influence, first of all, among a certain part of the youth. And it is in opposition with the Majlis management. Those interfere with their penetration into the religious organizations in every possible way. There is an open and hidden fight between these groups.

“Hizb ut-Tahrir” isn't forbidden in Ukraine - its representatives even appear on television. Thus they don't use extremist rhetoric which takes place in other countries. Because of what, actually, this organization also is forbidden in many states as declares the creation of the world Islamic caliphate as the purpose. Here they speak only about the right to interpret Islam, standards of behaviour of young Muslims. Thus emphasize that Ukraine is the independent state and, of course, don't declare the need to integrate the Crimea into structure of the Islamic Caliphate. Generally they apply for the right of a message religious promotion concerning the principles. Though it is obvious to all that at the expense of it their influence is increased and finally they can become the significant force.

The Majlis focused on Turkey instead of on the Arab countries, saudits and Iran on which “Hizb ut-Tahrir” is focused, causes sharp rejection strengthening of this group. Therefore they constantly accuse them of extremism and frighten the power by them.

- Are there any forces among the Crimean Tatars which would declare the need of creation of the national state in the Crimea?


The Majlis declares it - there is no secret in it, but only within Ukraine, as ethnic autonomy. It is the base for the ethnic conflict the condition of which is already present. Simply the conflict passes various stages in the development. Usually its last stage, the armed conflict, is understandable under the conflict already. And after all it begins with division of people on “we” and “they”.

Then there is a politicization of this moment - political leaders do national idea dominant in the policy. Naturally, in the polyethnic, polyconfessional region automatically there is the first stage of the conflict because of it. It can be extinguished, but can be developed, enter into the following stages and reach the highest. Also there are enough activists who popularize the idea of a national autonomy among the youth, develop it through idea of the “native” population who, allegedly, has a priority in formation of national statehood. Though it isn't provided in the international acts.

While the similar occurs at the level of theoretical polemic is the one thing, but when it becomes the political requirement and it is supported with power actions is perfectly the other level of development of a situation. There is an impression that other population of Ukraine looks at the Crimea as though it is a certain New Guinea - far and unclear what to be created. Therefore the point of view of Majlis often dominates in the Ukrainian mass media. Especially it was observed in the period of Kuchma and Yushchenko.

- Is it right that the Majlis positions itself as the force resisting to “Russian separatism” in the Crimea?

They advance this position since 90th years as there was rather powerful pro-Russian movement in the Crimea. And the Majlis management repeatedly, accurately declared that resists to “Russian separatism”. It constantly sounds in speeches of leaders, the same Jemilev even at the international level. They declare about the begun integration movement from Russia that won't allow to restore the USSR and to arise New Russia, they oppose categorically it. And such statements sound openly. And as it is favourable to NATO and the USA, naturally, they receive a certain help for it.

- But it is favourable also to the Ukrainian power in a certain degree?

The Ukrainian power during the period from Kravchuk to Yushchenko was played with them in these schemes, especially when Evgeny Marchuk was the head of the Security Service of Ukraine. He actively used this position of Majlis when fought against “meshkovshchina”, with the Crimean presidency, tried to curtail the rights of an autonomy as much as possible. Then he played this card. The Majlis was even forgiven the break-in of the Supreme Council of the Crimea though even today still it is possible to arrest and make responsible specific people for the organization of these riots. But as it was directed against the pro-Russian forces, it means it was “good”. Then the authorities, having played, saw that the Majlis too actively works and already poses the threat for unity of Ukraine. In this regard they suspended such “cooperation” a little. Even Yushchenko, despite all curtseys, didn't want to recognize a special role of Tatars and didn't begin to adopt the law on their special, priority political rights. The nationalist can be on friendly terms with the nationalist, but won't come over to his side in one state. They can harm to neighbours only together.

Also it should be noted that Jemilev actively supported Dzhokhar Dudayev's movement and went to Chechnya. And he, Chubarov and their other supporters actively supported separatist movements in Russia, as fight for national release. Moreover, here the fighters who participated in operations were treated in the Crimean sanatoria by means of Majlis. And the authorities of Ukraine made light of it.

Recently Anatoly Mogilev, the chairman of the board of ministers of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, pursues very correct policy. He raises a question in relation to Majlis in the following way - who are you and why you won't be registered? They speak - we won't be, we are the parliament and parliament shouldn't be registered. We are the representative body of the people, they have to recognize us and we aren't obliged to be registered as party or public organization. Won’t be registered - it isn't necessary. You consider yourselves as those - we don't consider you and we will cooperate only with those who is in an official legal framework. Besides, if Yushchenko completed the Council of representatives at the president from representatives of Majlis, now this Council includes other Tatar organizations.

Mustafa Jemilev's one more big care is that none of Tatars are not taken for work in the Security Service of Ukraine. They are taken in bodies of militia, but not on leading posts. According to Majlis, there has to be a certain national quota. But then it is necessary to speak about quotas for all other nationalities. No, they claim, only for us as we are the native population, we are the owners of this land. All the others are only the visitors. Also the direct rhetoric is such: “Though you are the majority, but you are the visitors only”. It has to be emphasized at the state level, in their opinion, both in the name of the republic and in all the rest.

- How the assumptions are right that the Crimean Tatar community can become the phenomenon of the same level as “insurgents” in Libya and Syria?

I can't agree with it. It is other community and other situation. It is not the tribes and even not Chechen shepherds mountaineers. These are the people integrated into modern branches of production, in trade, in a life, etc. Guerrilla war is based and arises where there are strong traditional communities. These people don't conduct a traditional way of life, practically nobody conducts. It is the high-urbanized ethnos, small quantitatively, living dispersed - there are no especially large places of compact accommodation. There can be certain separate terrorist organizations - can enclose a bomb, but not to conduct the organized operations.

It will be easy suppressed. Under certain conditions there can be groups of type of the Irish Republican Army, but only at full inaction of the authorities. But at rather tough policy such activity won't arise at all and won't be conducted.

Therefore it is necessary to speak about extremism of other sense – the political through mass manifest actions more likely. Here the provocations which can cause collisions can be carried out. And this extremely dangerous succession of events - the ethnic conflict if it leaves in this stage, already develops under the laws. Nobody can guarantee where and at what speed it will be developed.

- Can the western countries consider the Crimean Tatars as the lever of influence on a situation in Ukraine?

They can recognize, first of all, their priority rights and, speaking about protection of these rights, to interfere - to put diplomatic, military pressure. “It is really native people, who lives on the primordial land and its rights are violated”, they can take this scheme which already is prepared for them. And it can become a reason for intervention. But it becomes such occasion if the adverse party doesn't undertake any measures of a rigid order. For example, in a case with Georgia nobody decided to interfere as soon as took such measures.

Influence zones after the war in South Ossetia are outlined, are directly supported. And “to interfere” there we aren't ready even from NATO, despite their huge resources and opportunities. I think there is no while such need for them in Ukraine. But they will carry out the influence by other, more sophisticated, “quiet” methods.

Viewed : 1468   Commented: 0

Author: Mikhail Mikhaylov

Publication date : 18 June 2013 00:41

Source: The world and we

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