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Mikhail Petrushkov: “Russia has to realize the interests in Tajikistan!”

The member of the World Coordination Council of the Russian Compatriots, the representative of the region of Central Asia in the World Coordination Council of the Russian Compatriots, the chairman of the board of public organization “Union of Young Russian Compatriots of the Republic of Tajikistan” Mikhail Petrushkov told to our portal about how the political situation in Tajikistan develops, about how Russia is treated there and what it is necessary to make for strengthening of bilateral ties:

- How many Russians remained today in Tajikistan?

- In the late eighties according to informal data the Russians in Dushanbe were more than 700 thousand. And during civil war by some estimates the republic was left by more than one and a half million people! Now by different estimates it is from 40 to 60 thousand Russian compatriots in the republic. I use such term as according to the law the citizens of Russia living abroad, are called as the Russian compatriots. It is necessary to consider that the huge number of local population has the Russian nationality obtained thanks to the agreement between Russia and Tajikistan about a dual citizenship.

The Russians generally live in the capital – Dushanbe. There is such city Chkalovsk – it had direct Moscow submission in Soviet period. Here extracted the first gun plutonium of the Soviet Union. Here the Russians live still as the same as in Khodzhent and in Kurgan Tyube. Remained whether the intellectuals and highly qualified specialists or lumpens. Other layers practically didn't remain as the most part of people with high qualification left the republic in the years of civil war. They could settle on a new place and this fact says that personnel potential in Tajikistan was huge, of course.

- Are they somehow integrated? After all there is the Russian community …

- Just the Russian community doesn't exist in Tajikistan! The matter is that in due time it was created by speculators in the early nineties. Those started the huge project on resettlement of Russians to Russia – to the city Borisoglebsk. They told that contracts with local administration are allegedly already signed that everything will be made as it is necessary … And people here sold the houses and cars cheap, brought savings. They were shown any plans, but then together with these means the people covered with a name of the Russian community and the resettlement society “HOKO” amicably disappeared … Then there were judicial claims, the property of “HOKO” was described, but it was succeeded to return only any kopeks.

Here is such story … And today there are various organizations; especially there are a lot of them in Sogdiysk area: there is a network of the Russian cultural centers, there is an Union of the Russian compatriots, the Tatar-Bashkir society “Dustlik”. As a whole it is possible to count 25 organizations. Someone deals with culture issues, someone – social problems more.

- Do the local authorities help?

- It is impossible to answer this question unambiguously – everything develops differently in different places. And it must be said that a lot of things depend on the identity of the head! In lump the power doesn't notice such organizations for the reason that the Russian compatriots have no special value in Tajikistan. But, here in Chkalovsk the Russian cultural center was headed by the deputy of regional council Klimenko, respectively, with this center was reckoned …

But now there are no Russians among the deputies in Tajikistan at any level; we don't see them above and in power structures. Only George Vadimovich Koshlakov who once headed republic Council of Ministers and then long time was the adviser of the president is respected. He has a big personal authority, now he is the professor of the Russian-Tajik Slavic University. It is possible to call still Larisa Kislyakova who was the deputy minister of economy, and now is the vice-chairman of Chamber of Commerce and Industry.

- Who studies in the Russian-Tajik Slavic University?

- The representatives of all nationalities study there. It is the joint Russian-Tajik project. It began in 1996. Russia provides financing, and Tajikistan provides the building and technical providing. Earlier, it is necessary to tell, there were more Russian-speaking students, and now they become less and less. But the project lives and develops.

- And how there is a situation with the Russian language in the republic? Does it have any official status?

- Earlier the Russian language in the republic had the status of language of international communication. But in the new edition of the relevant law it has no such status any more. In many respects the Russian remains at present level thanks to efforts of the president of Tajikistan Emomalii Rahmon. The president demands that all bills would be prepared in two languages: Russian and Tajik. Such requirement isn't present in the law - it is a personal initiative of the president. He understands that the Russian is necessary for the republic. Though, of course, now the level of influence of the Russian is not such as in the late eighties – the beginning of the 90th when 99% of the population of the republic freely communicated in the Russian.

It should be noted one more moment: the positions of the Russian language in Tajikistan remain in many respects thanks to labor migrants. Migrants make today more than a third of the population of the country: it is possible to tell that it is a budget forming factor! Money transfers of migrants home have huge value for national economy.

As for the toughening of the corresponding rules proclaimed in Russia, it, probably, that case when wanted as better, and turned as always … I discussed this problem with colleagues: the thesis about need of knowledge of the Russian for migrants at the level of basic, instead of at the level of elementary concepts causes misunderstanding. But after all according to sociological researches 40% of graduates of the Russian higher education institutions don't possess knowledge of the Russian at the level of the basic!

It is natural that labor migrants know language one level lower and therefore they will pay a bribe to receive necessary certificates. In practice it is necessary to do absolutely another! It is necessary to advance simply the Russian language in the republic!

- How the population belongs to the Russian military base?

- If not to take the politicians into account, I would tell that the population is adjusted indifferently in this question. The military base was in Tajikistan during civil war – it solved the problems. It is necessary to tell that in many respects the situation in the country was stabilized by the Russian border troops which were unfortunately disengaged from Tajikistan in 2004. Their presence provided the peace and safety in the republic. The question of their return was brought up by the Russian representatives, the head of the Russian department of fight against drugs spoke on this subject. But such succession of events, naturally, would be unprofitable to drug groups, those who is the geopolitical opponent of Russia.

- What relation does Tajikistan have today with neighbors?

- We have very bad relations with Uzbekistan. And the matter is not in any ancient dispute as sometimes is written. Two fraternal peoples live nearby for eyelids, but there are today many contradictions between the heads of the republics! And in the east, if the management can't find a common language, the states are in a condition of confrontation. The conflicts on the Tajik-Uzbek border arise constantly. The huge constraining role belongs here to Russia. And differently the conflict could even develop into sharper phase.

Several times there was such situation when already tanks stood from that party … The border is mined on perimeter, transport and power blockade is carried out from Uzbekistan. Uzbekistan applies for a leading role in the region, it combats Kazakhstan for the influence center in Central Asia. It is the real opposition. If to take economic parameters into account, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan can long argue, but here Uzbekistan exceeds Kazakhstan nearly by two and a half times by number of the population! There is a real threat of an overpopulation.

And here we have good relations with Kyrgyzstan; there are only minor problems, characteristic for Central Asia – they concern enclaves.

- Let's talk about the world powers having the interest to Central Asia. What is it possible to say, for example, about the Chinese influence in Tajikistan?

- China fully uses the principle of “soft force” for the penetration into the region. It very actively advances here the interests, gives the interest-free credits. It constructs the roads, generally, increases the economic presence. China isn't going to work with the American methods – it works with own way: through economy.

They need all! And the influence of China in Tajikistan slowly but surely extends. The Chinese business behaves more and more actively. As a whole, if Russia shortly doesn't take the steps, it can really lose Tajikistan. Perhaps, in Russia it seems to someone that Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan is somewhere very far, but it is necessary to understand that actually it is the Central Asian Balkans … Now a lot of things develop in strict accordance with that Bzhezinsky and others American geopolitics spoke.

- Let's talk about the American influence in the republic. Does it exist?

- There are no American military bases as in Kyrgyzstan. There is the French base at the Dushanbe airport. It exists since 2007. There is a Foreign Legion and the Air Force of France – it is a question of freight transportation for a coalition in Afghanistan. This base doesn't cause special attention.

But let’s return to America. The USA has no university in the republic, but they open the international schools. Also it is obviously counted decision. After all we ask Russia just about the same! And Russian schools with the Russian teachers are necessary to us! It also will be commercially favorable! The same Americans counted everything before being engaged in this project. Training at the school opened by Americans costs 2000 dollars a year and the entry is large…

The USA place emphasis on elite education, invest huge money in the youth. And thanks to it already the government structure very changed, pro-American moods grow in the republic. The huge ideological apparatus works for Americans in Tajikistan, their embassy works very effectively. They support all transformations concerning small and medium business.

- What is it possible to say about a role of the president of the republic Emomalii Rahmon?

- The president can move forward for one term more and this is very important circumstance in the local politician. The constitution of the republic changed; now the term of presidential power makes seven years. Elections will pass in November, 2013; if the incumbent president wins a victory, then he will direct till 2020. In my opinion, it would be the best option for the republic. Simply it isn't visible who could replace Emomalii Rahmon. The president pursues very reserved, tolerant and professional policy.

- What Russia can do for the development of the relations with Tajikistan?

- Now in Tajikistan, and first of all the elite, has a need for training in the Russian. It means, it is necessary to emphasize at opening of the Russian schools. But Russia while places emphasis on opening of branches of the higher education institutions in the republic that, in my opinion, is incorrect! The matter is that people come to branches with already developed system of values, with the created attitude. They will receive simply a set of knowledge from Russia …

It is necessary to begin not with 18-year-old people, but with those who are only 5-6 years! Tajikistan asks all the time about opening of schools, and it isn't clear why Russia still hesitates with their opening. It is interesting, that even the Tajik nationalists who call for the extremely aggressive policy when bring the children into school, try to give them in the Russian school! They understand that it means absolutely other education level. Here is such paradox!

- Turkey actively works in formation of the Central Asian republics, isn't it?

- Turkey simply sets an example! It already opened 9 lyceums in Tajikistan. Though Tajikistan initially isn't included into an orbit of its geopolitical interests …

The tuition fee makes 1000 dollars a year. They work very accurately: train children to the 11th class, then select the best children of different nationalities: Tajiks, Uzbeks, Russian-speaking …After they are sent to Turkey where thoroughly rake over the coals. As a result, people come back absolutely others from there! The Turkish apparatus works better, than American and Chinese. After training in America the outlook of young people doesn't change so strongly as in Turkey.

And China works through Confucius's Centers. It advances them in Tajikistan, but cultures differ very strongly therefore the big success isn't present here. However, Chinese act by hook or by crook, and all the same achieve what they want.

Russia in this sense, alas, is the outsider. I will give an example: we have a mathematical gymnasium in the Russian. It was opened by the local intellectuals who studied in the Leningrad higher education institutions. And so, it can't close as all world competitions are won by pupils of this school! And so for a long time it would be pressed and closed …

The owner of this school, he is a director and the teacher, is convinced that the exact sciences need to train only in the Russian language! But, unfortunately, this unique school doesn't find support at the Russian officials. Where only they didn't address …

It is seen in the republic and, probably, the conclusions are drawn. And it is very easy to change a situation on polar, but the political will and awareness of importance of the Russian presence at Tajikistan is necessary for this purpose.
 

Viewed : 2122   Commented: 0

Author: Vladimir Kuzmenkin

Publication date : 14 July 2013 01:00

Source: The world and we

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