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N.A.Nazarbayev's Eurasian project: reaction of the Russian politicians and Kazakh population of the Novosibirsk region

The known political scientist, the Doctor of History, the head of the department of humanitarian bases of public service of the Siberian Institute of Management – the Branch of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Valery Demidov reflects on how the idea of the Eurasian project finds the road to the future on the example of one of the Russian regions:

N.A.Nazarbayev's Eurasian project: reaction of the Russian politicians and Kazakh population of the Novosibirsk region.

The first in the history of the modern Russian-Kazakhstan relations state visit of the president of Kazakhstan N.A.Nazarbayev to Russia, which took place at the end of March, 1994, was expected in Moscow with some tension. After the crash of “rouble zone of new type” the Kazakhstan leader avoided the contacts with B. N. Yeltsin, though accepted V. S. Chernomyrdin in Alma-Ata. Successes of Kazakhstan in a foreign policy field showed to the Kremlin that it is necessary to reckon with it. Especially any country in the world wasn't objectively interested in strong and stable Kazakhstan as Russia because the new state became the most reliable barrier between the Russian Federation and uneasy Central Asia. “Not Russia, but Kazakhstan today “holds a board” between Europe and Asia, at the same time showing an example of kind cooperation", stated “The independent newspaper” on March 29, 1994.

N.A.Nazarbayev's visit to Moscow was carefully prepared. In its eve the ambassador of Kazakhstan in the Russian Federation T. Mansurov addressed to journalists and noted that some mutual cooling in the relations of Moscow and Alma-Ata can't and shouldn't react on results of the forthcoming visit of N.A.Nazarbayev to the Russian capital and on traditionally friendly relations of two people. On his belief, the problems of the Russian-speaking population and “the Russian issue” artificially are strengthened by certain forces both in Kazakhstan and in Russia. So, LDPR leader V. V. Zhirinovsky for prosecution of the Russians in “pseudo-state” urged not to admit N.A.Nazarbayev to Moscow.

For the first time the Eurasian idea in thesis statement was announced by the President of Kazakhstan on March 22, 1994 during his visit to London. However the concept of creation of the Eurasian union was sounded a week later in Moscow. At a meeting with mayor Yu.M.Luzhkov he suggested to create the Eurasian union where 5-6 states could enter on the former Soviet Union. On the same day on March 29, N.A.Nazarbayev presented a new initiative before the Russian intellectual elite at the Moscow State University and then in the Central House of Journalists. Newsmen regarded that event as a successful course. However they raised a rhetorical question. “So, “The independent newspaper” questioned, how the initiator of the Eurasian union is perceived in Moscow – as the indispensable ally or as the undesirable competitor?”

According to this newspaper, the first Russian politician naturally with whom N.A.Nazarbayev shared the initiative was the president of the Russian Federation B. N. Yeltsin who however kept silence. According to V.T.Tretjakov, the Kazakhstan head risked to set the most difficult question for B. N. Yeltsin about creation of the Eurasian union that was regarded by experts as the beginning of restoration of the USSR. “It was obvious, the editor-in-chief of “The independent newspaper” explained, Nazarbayev knows that any Union won't be created under Yeltsin in Russia and Kravchuk in Ukraine. But Nazarbayev looks forward, in the future not of specific presidents, but Kazakhstan and Russia. And in the latter case – looks further than Kremlin”.

The Russian leader persistently kept silence. “It became clear, remembered subsequently K.K.Tokayev, that it is all about the elementary political jealousy. The Kremlin considered that N. Nazarbayev “hurried” with the ideas of the Eurasianism, say, it was necessary to consult in the beginning to B. Yeltsin and his environment, to invite the Russian president in co-authors. According to my frank interlocutor, it would provide success of the concept of Eurasianism...” After the owner of the Kremlin the leading figures of the Russian political Olympus, also as well as the pro-governmental press refused from project estimates. However, prime minister V. S. Chernomyrdin declared that while there is nothing concrete in idea of the Eurasian community and he doesn't know what it stands behind.

In the middle of April, 1994 the summit of leaders of the CIS took place in Moscow. The president of Kazakhstan was absent, but his project was discussed. “As it was possible to understand from lobby interviews, the same “The independent newspaper” informed, some participants of a meeting consider that Nazarbayev's idea can be considered, but it is untimely and even can destabilize a situation in Central Asia”. Nevertheless, ambassador T.Mansurov urged journalists to treat more attentively an initiative and to place emphasis on intentions to intensify integration processes.

Even there were separate notes in the press that it is unclear and impolitely to react to N.A.Nazarbayev's project with full official silence and the similar position indicates unavailability of the Russian diplomacy validly to treat the next partners. However only after publication in “The independent newspaper” actually the project of formation of the Eurasian union of the states signed by the president of Kazakhstan, the slowed-down reaction of the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation A.Kozyrev followed that Russia is ready to carry on negotiations on confederation, but on the scheme of the Eurasian union only after concrete decisions of parliaments and the political management.

The concept about the Eurasian union in the mid-nineties didn't receive a practical embodiment. Probably, according to K.K.Tokayev's recognition, the author didn't count on its fast realization. Realizing that it is not the proper time for this purpose yet, N.A.Nazarbayev understood that it is necessary to look for new, more practical forms of integration of those states which economically and politically predisposed to it. As it is represented, further the idea of the Eurasianism was demanded and found reflection in a number of practical actions. So, in performance from a tribune of the Eurasian national university in May, 2006 the president of Kazakhstan declared: “There are three whales of the Eurasian idea which have been almost realized at the initiative of Kazakhstan, – EurAsEC, CICA and SCO. Also it is three various practical expressions of one... Centre, United Eurasian Idea”.

Interest in Russia to a problem woke up after idea reincarnation in V. V. Putin's article “The new integration project for Eurasia – the future which is born today”, published in the Izvestia newspaper on October 5, 2011.

They started to speak about Eurasian union again. In this respect there was natural an emergence in the Russian press of article of N.A.Nazarbayev under heading “The Eurasian union: from idea to future history”. The Kazakhstan president, concerning the 1990th years, admitted in it that then knew about high expectations which connected million simple people living in Karaganda, Novosibirsk and other cities with integration and the commonwealth. In this connection there is a question: did the mention of Novosibirsk reflect an observed and real tendency or it represented mere chance and the reservation for the sake of a witty remark? It is thought that Novosibirsk got to the text of article of N.A.Nazarbayev quite fairly. One of confirmations to that is the situation and moods of the Kazakh population in the Novosibirsk region which in southwest part has the general border with Kazakhstan.

It is known that the Kazakhs live in the territory of the Novosibirsk region from time immemorial. According to the census of their 2002, there were11,7 thousand people or 0,43%. It is the fifth ethnos on number after Russians, Germans, Ukrainians and Tatars. In Novosibirsk since 2005, two local national and cultural autonomies of the Kazakhs under the names “Armand” and “OTAN” were registered. It is curious that the last in 2010 was renamed into the Kazakh national cultural centre that allowed to leave for a narrow framework of national isolation, to raise the status and the general activity in interactions with the power and the population. Besides, in 2008 the regional Russian-Kazakh public organization “Compatriots” was created.

“Round tables" and scientific and practical conferences on ethno-social processes in Siberia are carried out with support of scientific community and activists of public organizations, including the participation of scientists from Kazakhstan and representatives of the Kazakh cultural centres. For example, in April, 2010 in Novosibirsk the interregional Russian-Kazakhstan seminar practical work “Touch to indelible memory: reproduction of information materials in national languages” took place. Earlier the Year of Abay in Russia was spent successfully by joint efforts within which a number of creative meetings and actions took place. For example, the Semipalatinsk state memorial estate of Abay placed the exposition in a regional museum.

Within the official visits of akims of border areas of Kazakhstan to Novosibirsk, the cooperation agreements in the economic and humanitarian sphere with the Pavlodar and East Kazakhstan areas were signed and work. They gave a new impulse to traditional contacts between adjacent regions. The exchanges of the folklore collectives within festivals of national cultures became traditional. In the region the plan according to “The Cross-Border Cooperation Programme of regions of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Russian Federation for 2008-2011” was developed and successfully realized. In August, 2010 with organizational support of the government of the Novosibirsk region the meeting of the Kazakh public organizations with the representative of the World association of the Kazakhs K.N.Baltabayeva took place at which the prospects of development of communications and strengthening of contacts of the Kazakh population of area were discussed with association on various channels. Participation of delegation of Novosibirsk Kazakh public organizations in the World congress of Kazakhs in May, 2011 in Astana became the result of it.

As a whole, on the example of the Novosibirsk region, it is possible to claim about popularity of ideas of interstate cooperation and integration among the population, favourable conditions for advance in mass consciousness of the Eurasian project, one of the main initiators of which is the Kazakhstan president N.A.Nazarbayev.

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Author: Vladimir Kuzmenkin

Publication date : 13 April 2013 23:10

Source: The world and we

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