« February, 2020 »
Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun
27 28 29 30 31 1 2
3 4 5 6 7 8 9
10 11 12 13 14 15 16
17 18 19 20 21 22 23
24 25 26 27 28 29 1
2 3 4 5 6 7 8
RECENT COMMENTS

The U.S. State Department: Russia prepares aggression against the USA by hand of Chukchi people

What the fuck? This is a joke right? Not a single thing I've read here is true

Angelina

The U.S. State Department: Russia prepares aggression against the USA by hand of Chukchi people

For VIP Surat Escorts service in Aditi Rai for Most Young and Sexy Independent escort in Surat, Call Girls in Surat for any amazing ... http://www.

aditi4surat

The U.S. State Department: Russia prepares aggression against the USA by hand of Chukchi people

<p><a href="http://madhu-mumbaiescorts.com/mumbai-call-girls-service.html">mumbai call girls servie</a> <a href="http://madhu-

madhu

The U.S. State Department: Russia prepares aggression against the USA by hand of Chukchi people

http://madhu-mumbaiescorts.com http://madhu-mumbaiescorts.com/kochi.html http://madhu-mumbaiescorts.com/bhopal.html http://madhu-mumbaiescorts.com/

madhu

Turkmenia surprises: Arkadag will be instead of Turkmenbashi!

Sharjah Female Escorts +971568790206 Indian Independent Escorts In Sharjah, Sharjah Call GirlsSharjah Female Escorts +971568790206 Indian Independe

Sharjah Female Escorts +971568790206 Indian Independent Sharjah,

Turkmenia surprises: Arkadag will be instead of Turkmenbashi!

Are you looking for checking best form ofSurat Escorts? If yes, you can quit searching for Call Girls in Surat. Y

surat escorts

The truth of history: Wehrmacht, just as SS, slaughtered and raped on a mass scale

This article is full of FALSE information...honestly it seems as though the writer just made most of it up, there is nothing sourced, shows no proo

Emily Vidovic

Turkmenia surprises: Arkadag will be instead of Turkmenbashi!

nice article

nice one

The USA and other organizers of anti-Russian sanctions stand up for Nemtsov's murder

USA go to hell!

Fuck USA!

Turkmenia surprises: Arkadag will be instead of Turkmenbashi!

08450923755 Interesting Post of Escort services, Great to comment on this post really cool and hot sexy escort in this post.....

Rubika Mathur, 08450923755

“The Circassian question”: historical aspect

Who justifies oneself, so that is wrong. We perfectly know by ourselves that this formula is incorrect inherently. And at the same time we concern the person with vigilance who is compelled to explain the behavior: there is something wrong here – there is no smoke without fire … Isn’t it?

So it comes out: make the person to justify more often, so he will soon address in the extremely suspicious subject in the opinion of associates. Even if will justify, even if his acts appear irreproachably true and even if prove the snow-white reputation!

But there are no angels in the flesh among us, everyone has own rats in the attic and skeletons in the cupboard. Accordingly, who justifies oneself, so that is wrong. Because has admitted a situation at which it is necessary to speak. Such a sophistry.
But that is for the person. But if to take the state? Show me the state to which there are no claims at neighbors! Any claims: territorial, ideological, religious, historical … There are no such states and can't be!

The territory of any state developed as a result of wars. The border formation became a result of fighting collisions as the certain conditional compromise line dividing the spheres of interests of these states. Accordingly, this border was made with the prevailing account of interests of the country, the army and the military potential of which turned to be stronger at present. Hardly these force components of power of state-winner weakened, so other party started to search for ways for the revision of the developed status quo to own advantage. So it was, it is and will be.

And now let’s talk about Russia. Our territory developed throughout centuries as well as in any other country of the world. When we were strong, the territory extended, the new people joined us – sometimes by own will, sometimes by force and sometimes simply because there was no another exit or looked for personal benefit… Today we are weak. Accordingly, there are different charges rush to Russia. If to listen to them so we are guilty before everybody. And how not to remember an ordinary image of a wounded lion, to which the jackals were afraid to come nearer the day before, but now having grown bolder, aspire to bite more painfully, recouping for own yesterday's fear …
And if the charges accused to us, when more or less well-founded and when frankly foolish, so we are compelled to justify, explain ourselves, prove the own innocence. It is unpleasant, but there is nothing you can do!
Let's say, that many copies break now round the Olympic games and the right for carrying out of which our country has achieved.

The Olympic Games of 2014 anyhow will take place in Sochi. It is simply difficult to think up a situation which could change a venue of Games except “doomsday” promised in the end of the next year. I think, nobody starts to argue with this reality.
Nevertheless, the passions boil round it. And it would be not a grain of exaggerations in the statement that these passions feed artificially. First of all, the boiling occurs the so-called “Circassian question”.


So, what is such “Circassian question”? Its adherents assert that in the middle of a XIX century the Circassian ethnos which was the ally of imam Shamil in struggle against Russia, has appeared to be fully destroyed by the imperial authorities. The statement is exaggerated that number of the Circassians as a result of policy on destruction of these people was reduced to 96 percent.

It looks lightly at least. But it is necessary to justify, prove that a considerable share of slyness is in the given statement.
It is well-known that the basic motive power of jihad which conducted Shamil, were the Avars and Chechens. After the capture of Shamil in August, 1859, the reprisal against these people would be still clear perhaps, however they didn’t follow! But suddenly the genocide has fallen upon other people?... It is illogical.

Any person in general, who knows the history in the slightest degree, knows that any people haven't been destroyed as a result of an imperial politics of Moscow on all immense open spaces of Russia. There was no universal slaughter according to the ethnic sign during the most bloody governors. No, our ancestors weren't the nice good-natured persons, they were able to be at war, however preferred to coexist with the subdued people peacefully with peace coming. Even the tragic resettlements of the people – they were the resettlements, but not destruction in any way. It is the fact with which it is possible to argue with the will, but which is impossible to deny.

So, how the events actually developed on the Caucasus in the middle of XIX century? And in what degree “question” brought up now represents the facts?
The struggle against Shamil and Imamat was a major factor defining a situation in region throughout long time. The war which was called as Crimean war in Russia and the East war in Europe should be reflected in the Caucasus. England and Turkey actively incited the local people to struggle against Russia. It is quite clear that first of all their influence appeared on the population of the western part of the North Caucasus where the Circassians lived.
OUR REFERENCE
The Circassians (the self-name: adyge) is one of the nationalities of the Adygne, living in Karachay-Cherkessia (Russia). The population size is 60,8 thousand persons, including 50,2 thousand persons in Karachay-Cerkessia. The Circassians name themselves as “adyge” since the most ancient times, as well as the Kabardians, Adygeis. They live in 17 auls of Karachay-Cherkess Republic. They live also in the countries of the Near East from where they have been evicted in second half of XIX century (see the Caucasian Muhajir community). All Adyghes, Abkhazians and sometimes other people of the North Caucasus who have moved here after the joining of the North Caucasus to Russia unite here under the name “Circassians”.
(Wikipedia)

From the middle of July, 1856, the English military ships have started to deliver here the groups of mountaineers specially prepared abroad, mercenaries, the weapon and ammunition for kindling of struggle against Russia. They delivered here the appeals at first with an appeal to mountaineers to become a citizen of England or France and subsequently called for resettlement on territory of Turkey. In particular, in February, 1857, two British ships have landed in the area of Tuapse about 200 fighters so-called “Polish-English legion” led by the colonel Teofil Lapinsky (otherwise Tevfik Bey). Besides own arms, the legionaries have brought some guns, 40 boxes of rifles and also a large quantity of charges to them.

It is not necessary to forget that the relation between two empires – the Russian and Ottoman – remained rather strained throughout all XIX century and burst in wars from time to time. In these conditions Turkey has been terribly interested in intensity forcing at the rear of the Russian armies, while the imperial government has been so interested in pacifying rear.
So the separatism of the Caucasian people was warmed up from overseas long since.

The Russian authorities aspired to pacify the region, instead of to fill it with blood. The plan providing the gradual advancement from the Black sea and from the river of Laba in parallel to the Caucasian ridge has been developed with that end in view. The large strong points were put in the process of advancement. In particular, in May, 1857, Maikop fortification, nowadays Maikop city, the capital of Adygea, has been based. The author of the plan was general Vikenty Kozlovsky and he has put a fortress.
As the power of Moscow became stronger in region, the more and more of the local people expressed the humility and accepted the Russian citizenship. Especially the general Grigory Filipson managed in this field and who could swear in more than 60 thousand persons. Muhammed Emin, the associate of Shamil, was among those who recognized the power of Moscow.


In August, 1860, the Caucasian deputy infantry general Alexander Baryatinsky has held the meeting of the top management of the Caucasian army in Vladikavkaz on which Grigory Filipson has offered the plan of pacification of Northwest Caucasus. This military person to his fingertips supported exclusively a peaceful way of a problem solution. He underlined that the process of realization of his plan can be stretched not for one decade, but as a result the peace will come on these earths.
However there was also another point of view. The commander of all armies of the Right wing of the Caucasian army lieutenant general Nikolay Evdokimov held it. Nikolay Ivanovich was the supporter of the force way of a problem solution. He supported the pacification of armed resistance of mountain dwellers and for reduction to territory humility by force of the Cossack settlements organization.
The prince Baryatinsky and tsar Alexander Nikolaevich recognized the plan of Evdokimov more effective and have charged to realize it to him. As a result of carried out of administrative-territorial transformations in the winter and spring of the same year, Nikolay Ivanovich was called as the chief of the Kuban region now.

Campaign has started in summer of 1860. The matter was as following. The cuttings were cut through the forests, roads were cleared, the settlements were based from the rivers Laba, Belaya, Urup towards the Caucasian ridge. The resistance was put down. However, there wasn’t especially strong resistance to this systematic and consecutive advancement. The Russian authorities defined the places which were offered to mountain dwellers to settle. Those who didn't wish to obey had the right to settle out to Turkey.

Let's be defined. The expansion of one people on the historical earths of another in itself is the phenomenon which hardly is possible to recognize quite fair. However we already mentioned above, that exactly territory of all states was formed as a result of such penetration of one people into an area of dwelling of others. There were three variants of actions among the Circassian and others tribes living on slopes of a ridge. If to accept the Russian citizenship, so no repressive measures were apply to them in this case, they remained to live on the native earths though they had the Cossack settlements now in the neighborhood. Thereby they doomed themselves to death having taken the weapon in hands and fighting with newcomers because the Russian army was incomparably stronger. Russia didn't force them to emigrate to Turkey, but didn't interfere, while they were attracted by the Turkish and English emissaries.
Let's agree that the given policy we won’t name as the genocide in any way. To be more exact, it is possible to name, of course, everything and whoever you like, but it will be only a lie.
About 90 villages and settlements were formed in the western part of northern spurs of the Caucasus as a result of realization of the plan of Evdokimov to 1865 year, in which about 16 thousand Russian and Cossack families have located.
The Circassians and representatives of other nationalities are trustworthy of special conversation who have preferred to emigrate to Turkey. The matter is that Ottoman Empire has been interested in these immigrants. The Constantinople government planned to use these Moslem Turks for moving in districts with the prevailing Christian population – on the Balkans and in territory of Armenia. Accordingly, the great variety of Turkish propagandists who promised the considerable privileges such as tax and military service exemption to immigrants has gone to the lands to which the Russian armies and the Cossack settlements approached. As a result, about a half-million of the Circassians has gone overseas. It is really not similar on a genocide completely!

Moreover: the Russian authorities are interested in that the most orthodox set up enemies have left the empire earths somewhat quicker, have offered the assistance in resettlement, having chartered the steamships for this purpose. However the emigrated mountain dwellers couldn't believe in such nobleness from the ideological opponents and refused such help. On the other hand and the Turkish authorities have appeared not ready to such people flow of wishing to move and haven't provided them with enough quantity of steamships …

In general, it has turned out so. The mountain dwellers haven't wished to use the Russian ships. But the Turkish didn't cope with such human stream. There was a set of “private” carriers who undertook to transport the people through the Black sea for a payment. The overloaded fragile little vessels not always reached the desired Ottoman coast – it is not known how many immigrants have died at the bottom of Pontus Euxine. The remained to wait the fierce winter of 1862-1863 in the interim camps at the Russian coast, have died in mass. Those who had time to get over to Turkey placed in camps specially equipped for them which also have appeared incapable to accept and warm all wishing people and in which the death rate also had the mass character. So the death rate for the Circassians-emigrants on this thorny way to blessed Osmania has appeared unreasonably high.

There are no words, feel sorry for people. All the more they moved with families, with women and children, whom are always heavier than to men in such conditions. And it is doubtless that this resettlement became a consequence of the Caucasian war. Only Russia is responsible for that tragedy now. It is unfair. England and Turkey should take up the part too.

When the emigratory stream has subsided, the imperial government has undertaken the following step. Namely: some mountain peoples have been moved on plain. The Adyghes (Circassians) are among them who have located there where is Adygei now.
It is necessary to note still such circumstance. The Russian authorities were aspired to make order on pacifying territories which would promote the development of prosperity of region. The local government taking into account the national traditions of the people was formed. The conditions which favored to the development of the industry, agriculture and trade were formed. They opened the schools here in which the local children were studied…

It wouldn’t be the big exaggeration if to tell that the present representatives of the Circassian intelligency who brand the arrival of Russia to the Caucasus, are descendants of those mountain dwellers who have learned the reading and writing in arranged for them Russian schools for the first time.
… Any action should have any purpose. What purpose is pursued by people (forces) who inflate now “Circassian question”? What should turn out on an exit?

The purpose here is only one: to declare about own existence. Not to the people but to those leaders who can't show themselves in another way. The similar picture could be observed in China when the Uigurs undertook the attempt to attract the attention to themselves. However, Chinese authorities won’t allow any fooling around – this theme is already forgotten in the Celestial Empire.

… One more question is at the distance in that cluster of problems, to bypass of which is wrong and awkwardly to mention it. Because the author of these lines can be accused of blasphemy.



The considerable part of the program of the Olympic Games will pass in resort settlement Krasnaya Polyana. The orthodox persons from “Circassian question” try to give this fact as blasphemy as in hole Kbaada, where the settlement is, the Dzhigits who were at war against the Russian armies were buried in 1864. The matter concerns the peace of dead people that is why it is necessary to be extremely delicate.

The relation to tombs and places of burial places of people are very painful theme. I personally feel uncomfortably in the same Moscow when I pass Varsonofevsky lane or I’m near the underground station “Sokol” or go down in underground crossing near Vozdvizhenka near the building of the defence ministry retail shop – there were the cemeteries here. 150 thousand persons were buried along outer side of Boulevard Ring during the hunger in the beginning of XVII century – on two bodies on each running meter … If to present that you go in such places …
However let’s be the realists! There is no end to the mass burial places of people on all earth. Probably, there are somewhere the sites (let’s say in Antarctica) on which the human blood never flew. The person killed another person everywhere, the stones are buried everywhere …
It is indisputable truth, to argue with which hardly who begins. I am against to fill up the tombs on existing cemeteries and to use them as a platform for something. However all earth represents a huge country churchyard. And if would be wrong to destroy the existing cemeteries, … So how to tell it …

Here someone will tell: a pier, you have given the Moscow examples, so it is your problems and didn’t touch our tombs! But after all how many decades somebody didn't remember those burial places in hole. The whole resort has developed there, from which all local population was quite fed. And now suddenly “keepers of memory” have remembered about fallen one a half centuries ago! Because it is possible to speculate in them. It is necessary to be somehow logical, doesn’t seem to you?

… In general if to speak frankly, the choice of Sochi as the Olympic Games carrying out, in my opinion, is extremely unsuccessful. There are enough regions in Russia where the Games could be spent with the big efficiency where the enclosed giant sums brought the big advantage to more number of people. For example, the Ural Mountains, Altai, the Central Siberia, Kamchatka, at last!

However the decision is accepted, nobody can change it. And now it is necessary to think how to make that the Olympic Games has passed at high level as much as possible. When the Circassians put a question that their culture should be more widely presented in the cultural program of the Olympic Games – so who would argue! It is obvious, so it should be. If to put other questions, the decision of which will do good to the Circassian people, but won't interfere the Olympic Games, so it is necessary to concern them with full attention.

The main thing is that this attention would be mutual and without gamble. Then will be more advantage.

Viewed : 3088   Commented: 6

Author: Иван Смирнов

Publication date : 30 October 2011 14:15

Source: The world and we

Comments

НАШ КАНАЛ В ДЗЕНЕ