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The Russian Arctic will be reliably protected? The problems are remained...

This spring the increased interest in the Arctic is observed in the world. For Russia it is not the most favorable tendency as more interested person appear to challenge its right to the Arctic waters and shelves, writes the information agency “Utro.ru”

Last week the second International conference on safety in the Arctic took place in Murmansk. Its participants, the representatives of Denmark, Iceland, Canada, Norway, Russia, the USA, Finland and Sweden, have visited the archipelago Franz Josef Land where visited the most northern frontier post of Russia. The secretary of Security Council of the Russian Federation Nikolay Patrushev was their “guide, who reported that these lands, which were inaccessible to foreigners, is planned to be opened for tourists. Well, probably, such beginning of conference will give an additional push to the development of “ecological tourism” in Russia: there are many interested persons in the world who want to visit severe the Arctic widths for a lot of money. Last year the participants of similar international conference made the cruise on the Yamal ice breaker on the Northern sea way and it has impulsed its development: according to Patrushev, the cargo traffic on the Northern Sea Route increased for 20 % since then.

The same days one more conference “Logistics in the Arctic”, organized by the Association of suppliers of the oil and gas equipment “Murmanshelf” took place in Murmansk. The matter was already of economic development of the northern latitudes there: according to the experts, the Arctic shelf can contain to a quarter of world reserves of hydrocarbons and also large supplies of other raw materials. The interest to them amplifies in process of improvement of production technologies and also the reduction of an ice cover of the Arctic Ocean.

Throughout this subject, on April 16, the heads of ExxonMobil and “Rosneft” in the presence of Vladimir Putin signed a package of documents on implementation of the agreement on the strategic cooperation, concluded in last year. It is a question, in particular, of joint development of a shelf of the Kara Sea (only geological prospecting works are estimated at $3, 2 billion).

However, the gradual “opening” of the North brings not only an economic benefit. "We see that occur the changes in the Arctic and should understand and see the calls and threats which are connected with it”, noted Patrushev at conference in Murmansk. Threat is represented, first of all, by active aspiration of the states, the companies and individuals to the Arctic and also disputes and the conflicts arising on this ground. In particular, very strong resistance is caused by the efforts of Russia on upholding of the rights to the underwater ridges of Lomonosov and Mendeleev. If it proves these claims, it will increase the exclusive economic zone in the Arctic by 1, 2 million sq.km and will stretch up to the North Pole.

It is clear that other countries want to have equal access to resources of this rich part of a shelf and consequently show the resistance to Russia on a legal framework. There are also the appeals to “internationalization” of the Northern sea way – the matter is of giving the status of the international transport corridor to it and to deduce from under jurisdiction of Russia. Similar requirements sound in relation to the Canadian Northwest Passage (from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean). At last, in process of “thawing” of the Arctic waters, the cases of unauthorized emergence of various foreign vessels become frequent. So, the Russian frontier guards find yachts with tourists onboard in the Northern sea way every year; quite often the research vessels get there. China, for example, reported about construction of the second ice breaker and that prepares the fifth Arctic expedition.

The aggravation of disputes and traffic activization in the northern waters pushes the subarctic powers to building of military potential in the Arctic. The experts frighten with “the Arctic race of arms” and even war for long ago, however while the situation nevertheless didn't get out of hand. The Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) notes in the recent special report that the signs of arms race in the Arctic aren't present, however recognizes the existence of the bases for anxiety concerning the safety of the North in the future.

In order to reduce the heat of the horror, the subarctic states started to agree with each other. The meeting of chiefs of the General Staffs of the countries of the Arctic region took place the other day on air base Goose -Bay in the north of Canada firstly in the history. The high-ranking military men from the USA, Canada, Russia, Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Finland and Iceland discussed “common problems” in the Arctic for two days. Russia was represented by the chief of the General Staff Nikolay Makarov at a meeting. Before Nikolay Patrushev made the working visit to Canada where he noted that the Arctic gives unique possibilities “for partnership, instead of rivalry”. According to him, “our two countries will strengthen safety of the northern borders, develop communications between the native citizens of the North and conduct development of new communications and fields on the ways of cooperation”. With other northern neighbor, Norway, Russia carries out the joint teaching during the fourth year running during which the operative compatibility of naval and military and air forces of two countries in the Arctic region is fulfilled.

The measures for strengthening of the northern Russian boundaries, which become more and more vulnerable in the process of thawing of the Arctic, are taken in parallel: the border guard service of FSB declared the intention to create two tens of new frontier posts there. As a whole, Russia intends to defend the rights in the Arctic widths rigidly. Such approach is fixed in the project of Development strategy of the Arctic zone, prepared by the government. It was emphasized on the meeting of experts council across the Arctic and Antarctic at the chairman of Federation Council, which took place in Moscow at the end of March, that Strategy should define “more accurately and more rigidly” the priority interests of Russia in the region, in particular, its rights to the Northern sea way.

However, the creation even of fifty frontier posts in this region won't solve a problem all the same: in memorable the 90th all radar stations were almost completely destroyed in the Russian North and here there is almost no possibility to find the air or sea violator even with application of radar-tracking means. Besides, it is extremely necessary to have the patrol vessels of the strengthened ice class and distant radius of action on the Northern sea way which could supervise it all-the-year-round. And the multiple increase the number of patrol planes of Il-38 type and placement of several connections of Armed forces of the Russian Federation in this region which has been specially intended for actions in the conditions of severe Arctic climate would be the most optimum decision.

Viewed : 2167   Commented: 4

Author: Yury Karnovsky

Publication date : 26 April 2012 01:00

Source: The world and we

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