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The claims on Katyn are the Polish way to hide war crimes of 1920 and the aggressive role of Poland at the beginning of the Second World War

Now unfortunately, many persons know nothing as to the terrible tragedy that is related to the destruction of tens of thousands of Red Army men in the Polish death camps of Pilsudsky, which became the prototype of the Nazi Auschwitz. It is due to the fact that this question was hushed up for a long time per political reasons in the USSR in order not to introduce the tension in the relations with the socialist Poland. So it is very important to talk about the history of this event and to inform the widest possible audience as to this information.

On January 22, 1919 the so-called “Zluka” occurred, that is so widely celebrated in Ukraine. About the true value of this event, the fact says that almost immediately the agreement between Poland and Petlyura appeared, under which Poland was contributed with the western part of the right-bank of Ukraine, which is almost half the lands of new-appeared joint “state”, for its help in the fight against the Bolsheviks. Poland that was only reconstructed and gained independence in 1918, had announced the creation of Rzeczpospolita “from Mozha to Mozha”, from the Baltic to the Black Sea, immediately. Although the Polish lands have never reached the Black Sea coast historically. It must be said that the requests of this state have always been very considerable.

The Polish troops set foot on the territories of Ukraine and Byelorussia. At first the military advance was successful. They even crossed the Dnepr River and came to the lands of left-bank Ukraine. At this time the Red Army units had carried out a series of successful operations against Denikin and the opportunity for troop’s projection to the Western Front, has appeared. Two fronts – South-west front, headed by Egorov and the West one, headed by Tukhachevsky. They began the general counterattack. And if the units of the South-west front had bogged down in the promotion on the territory of western Ukraine, the army of Tukhachevsky continued its advance on Poland and came out already on the Polish lands strictly.

It is necessary to take into account that Poland had the assistance of the Entente. For example, the young lieutenant, Charles de Gaulle, the future president of France, was the adviser of the Polish army and made war with the Red Army men. And it has taken place the event that is called in Polish historiography, as the “miracle on the Vistula”. As a result of the shock effect of very well briefed Polish troops, armed with British and French weapon, the units of the Western Front began to drop back and a lot of the Red Army men were caught up in Polish captivity. The figures that are named - about 120 thousand people were captured. In Polish captivity they were from 1920 up to the first half of 1921.

The incarceration conditions were terrible. In fact they were aimed to exterminate the captives. For example, more than 12 thousand of Red Army men were mortified in the camp No.1, Stshalkovo, as for the end of December, 1920. The captives were held without overclothes and practically without food, in spite of autumn-winter. Young Polish officers took pleasure by cutting captives’ heads, showing how they wield a saber. Polish soldiers were trained by shooting at targets, which were living training targets. About 22 thousand people were annihilated in the Tuchola camp according to the data from the Polish newspaper “Forward”. There are carried out shooting data. For example, General Sikorsky (the future prime minister of Poland) gave the order to shoot up 300 captives by machine guns. Close upon 80 thousand persons, it was the total number of victims from the middle of 1920 to spring of 1921. It is only the Red Army men… But the White also experienced casualties due to such Polish “hospitality”.

The White Guard Corps of General Trepov, stepping-back through Byelorussia, occurred on the Polish territory, when the Red Army units initiated the offensive on February, 1920. They were located into the camp and practically weren’t fed. About 4 thousand of the Whites of 20 thousand persons died due to inhuman living conditions from February to August 1920. Then, in accordance with agreement of the Polish government, their remains 16 thousand persons were sent to Wrangel. And further they saw active service in the White Guard army of Wrangel in the Southern front territory. After the signing of the Riga peace with Poland in 1921, they, who survived, had been unhanded.

The attitude to the Polish enemy prisoners of war was quite different. More than 20 thousand of Polish soldiers were taken in the Soviet captivity during attack of the West and the South-Western front. The only thing was that they could have complaints against the political workers, who knew the Polish language, strenuously carried out the educational events, explained the political moment. The keeping was quite reasonable and, according to opinions of contemporaries, C-ration of captive Polish soldier in Soviet captivity was higher than the Soviet institution officer one. Besides, it was typical for the prisoners of war from Fascist Germany, because they had received C-rations per international standards, they were fed better, than the Soviet citizens, who received per cards and being in the rear.

In order to avoid frictions in international relations with the socialist Poland, the subject of killed Red Army men, the both parties had preferred not to touch after 1945. Although the authorities of Republic of Poland in both Tuchola and Stshalkovo have put up the deceased Red Army men monument. But presently everyone is not remembered of it. In Poland these monuments are in poor condition. And although they are saved, nobody makes mention of these facts. Nobody makes memorial service as to the innocently murdered persons.

And it is not the exclusive case, which has not received positive publicity for the years of the Soviet power, in order to avoid tension both between the Warsaw Pact countries and within the USSR. The identical situation was with the Byelarussian Khatyn. About this fact the film was taken, but taking into account the political interests, it was not advertised that this village were burned not only by German SS-sheep but also by Ukrainian nationalists and if to be exact, by the battalion, where Roman Shukhevich was the commander once upon a time. It was said that the enemies, the fascists have destroyed. And it was not pointed out that the brothers - Ukrainians were the part of these enemies.

In Russia, Aman Tuleev was among the first politicians, who have begun to attract the most active attention to the events of 1920-1921. He has suggested the creating the Russian Institute of National Memory, which would research the crimes against the Russians from 1917 to present time. In this situation, the theme of massive destruction of the Red Army men in the Polish death camps should be separated and it should be as one of the main directions. It should be officially applied to the Polish side on the subject of the transfer of data and archival documents to Russia. And it should be gained enough materials for the action in international juridical instances in order to prove that the scale of the annihilation of prisoners of war, which was held by the Polish authorities, was genocide. In this connection, the subject of financial compensations and that image that at present time the Poles create for Russia, in connection with Katyn, will assume quite another turn – as concealment and unwillingness to acknowledge its own war crimes.

Nowadays the Communist Party of the Russian Federation prepares the document concerning the Polish officers in Katyn and among the list of themes the issue as to the events of 1920-1921 on the territory Poland will be brought up for discussion at the international level. The more so, as the Polish authorities prepares statements of claim. In Russia the people don’t understand that it is not the best position to play into the hands of Poland in this matter. The history shows that, that claims of this country have never restricted by the reasonable framework. Especially, upon considering that concerning Katyn there are quite many ambiguous facts that acknowledge the involvement of the Germans in this crime and that maybe Polish officers, the most of them, weren’t shooted in 1940.

The most important moment is that Katyn question is viewed as totally beyond both the Polish and Soviet relations context of that time and the history of aggressive actions, which were done by Poland in relation to the USSR. These circumstances and events of 1920-1921, the annihilation of Red Army men in Poland, have the greatest influence in order to assess the events that took place in Katyn adequately.

When viewing the Katyn question somewhat nobody remembers the fact that Polish officers were the prisoners of war in practice, because on November 24th, 1939, the Polish government in exile, that escaped from Warsaw to Bucharest at first and then moved to London and declared war to the USSR. That is why the Polish officers, if they had acknowledged the government in exile power, were the officers of that country, which were in war status with the USSR. Among the prisoners of war that were in Katyn and in Kharkov prison, weren’t only those, who behave cruelly to the Soviet prisoners of war and not only those, who were in Polish counter-intelligence and gendarmery.

Some Polish officers were arrested upon the preparation and realization of diversions and the acts of terror in the Western Byelorussia and Ukraine after that they had entered into the USSR. In other words, they were practically carrying out the orders of Polish government in exile and being in the war status, they acted against the USSR. Their cases were earmarked for special legal procedure and were viewed not only for previous 20 years-old crimes, but for the recent ones as well, which they done. Of course, some of these officers underwent punishment.

One has every reason to believe that the annihilation of most of Polish captives was executed by fascists. There are numerous suppressed and not considered facts that are the evidences of it. It is confirmed that the commandant of Polish war prisoners’ camp, supposedly executed in 1940, in July 1941, when the Germans were approached to Smolensk, left the camp, so 75 train cars were allocated to him – so he could rescue the executed war prisoners of war supposedly. But he couldn’t come back, because the Germans were advancing too fast and entered the territory of the camp.

The most important moment is that the Germans didn’t raise the question regarding Katyn not in 1941 and not in 1942. And only in 1943, when the war breakdown became obvious, Gimmler and Gebbels suddenly got themselves dramatically worried about the violation of human rights of Polish prisoners of war. While they themselves annihilated 6 million 600 thousand of the Poles, who died during the war.

If we are talking about the withhold facts, during the exhumation of the bodies, the personal letters have been found in the clothes pockets, the ones were dated back to 41th year, not to April of 40th, the newspapers were dated back to summer of the 41th year. The Germans established the special international commission, which included the Bulgarians and Yugoslavs. The ones who didn’t want to sign the protocol, which was comfortable for the German government that this was fault of the USSR, were just annihilated. This explains the reason that the most of the facts were hidden.

While getting back to the Soviet-Polish relation, it is necessary to say as to the character reaction that arose among the local people with regarding to the Polish migrants on the territory of the West Byelorussia and Ukraine in 1939. Because the aggressive policy to polonaise everything was carried out in the 20s-30s. In other words the territory of Byelorussia had to be the Polish territory, the local people had to be disposed or assimilated. The authorities were taken away the fields from peasants and transferred it to the Poles, while the local people had to work on them as farm hands. Polish seniors got used, that the Ukrainians are lowbrows, bond slaves that can be victimized. So, when the Red Army units engaged the territory of the West Byelorussia on September 16, 1939, the Byelorussian peasants were lacerating the territories of the Polish migrants. It was the kind of the attitude of seigniorial Poland towards Ukrainian and Byelorussian population, such foreign policy Poland was carried out against the USSR. Everything must be taken into account on review of issue, regarding Katyn and other questionable issues.

The problem is that when in 1918 the independent Polish state was recreated, the politics who came to power were so nationalistic, anti-Russian, anti-Ukrainian oriented that they seen the Poland future only through conquering of neighbor territories. At that time the interesting Polish maps were printed, showing the “native” Polish lands. Same as our nationalists like to depict Kuban as Ukrainian land, Kursk region, part of Byelorussia and part of Poland – they are all Ukrainian territories, which were conquered by neighbors. In the similar way on Polish maps of 20s, the future Poland was printed, where the “Polish” city Smolensk was as part of it.

The aggressive policy was held not only in relation to Byelorussian and Ukrainian population but also in relation to Lithuanian population. Then the capital of Lithuania was Kaunas and the city Vilno, today’s Vilnius was under the Polish authority. Only 10% of the population in this city was the Lithuanians. Namely the USSR, by signing the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact, achieved that Germany had returned Klaipeda, conquered from Lithuania in 1938.

Thanks to this, Lithuania received the access to the Baltic Sea, which the one had lost before and got its capital Vilnius. Besides, some part of the lands of the Soviet Byelorussia of 20-30s, where the Lithuanian population dominated, was transferred by the USSR from Byelarussia to Lithuania in 40-th year. In other words, thanks to the USSR, Lithuania had received big territorial acquisitions, modern borders and that’s why its current aggressive, anti-Russian policy stirs up so much surprise.

However this attitude has its prehistory. In fact, during 20-30 years the seigniorial Lithuania was fascists’ state, which was controlled by Smetona regime. For a reason, after the 33-rd year, the representatives of German intelligence had liked very much to visit Lithuania, because they found there like-minded persons.

The role of Poland before the beginning of the Second World War was ambiguous. One polish professor and politician said very interesting phrase, “it is very pity that Poland failed to come to the agreement with Germany in 39th year. And then, on December of 41-th year, the prime-minister of Poland Rydz-Smigly and Adolf Hitler would take the salute of the Polish-German victorious army on the Red Square”.

There were the pre-requisites regarding the possibility of Poland to cooperate with Germany during the war. When, in 1938 Germany occupied Sudetenland of Czechoslovakia, at the same time Poland occupied Teshinsk region. In other words they divided the territory of Czechoslovakia in collusion with each other. Germany had certain hope that it will be possible to cooperate with Poland like, for example, with Romania, Hungary or Finland in the war against the USSR.

In addition, Poland pertinacity in 1938, because of the collusion with Germany put the start of the Second World War in the way, as it was began in 1939. As the matter of fact in the 30s the agreement between Czechoslovakia, the USSR and France, in conformity with which, in case of attack of Czechoslovakia, the Red Army would have step forward and give it a hand and France would start the war at the West front against Germany. Certainly, Germany would find itself in a very difficult situation while fighting in two battlefronts.

But namely the position of Poland, that announced that it will not allow the Red Army to pass through their territory, completely eliminated the chance to help Czechoslovakia and the development of military actions in a very not desirable scenario for German.

I think it is wrong, when the starting date of the Second World War is dated of September 1, 1939. The western historians even says that August 23, 1939 is the right date, when the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact was signed, and supposedly, I quote one of the English historian, “Stalin gave the green light for Hitler aggression”.

In fact such “green light” for Hitler was given by England and France on September 30, 1938, when Daladier and Chamberlain signed the agreement in Munich as to the partition of Czechoslovakia. This date should be considered as the start of the war. At that time Hitler understood that all paths were opened to him for aggression against European countries. Chamberlain arrived in London with the statement – I had brought you a peace for decades. But it turned out to be that the war flared in less than one year.

Therefore the history of the Soviet-Polish relations’ development, actualization of aggressive actions of Poland towards the USSR, annihilation of dozen thousands of Red Army Men in 1920, shows that actions of the USSR regarding the Polish prisoners of the war in 1940-1941 were at least, adequate and meet the character of the relations with Poland. And if we take into account hidden facts regarding Katyn, chances are high that only the part of Polish prisoners of war was shot and punished for the war crimes against the USSR. And the gross of them was annihilated by the fascists in 1941, after which the falsification was made to accuse the USSR in it.

In any case, the Red Army men’ annihilation by Poland in 1920 is the heaviest, cruelest crime that violates all international norms of that time. And the paramount task is the evidence of this crime at the international level and Poland recognition of responsibility for it.

Viewed : 1835   Commented: 0

Author: Михаил Михайлов

Publication date : 28 March 2011 16:02

Source: The world and we

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