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The history of the Ob North disproves the myth about Russification

There are quite often in foreign press last time materials about extremely hard life of North na-tions which becomes such because of uninterruptible process of native nation Russification. What does really happen in boundless northern spaces? How did Russians and representatives of native nations live together?

Anatoly Ablazhey, the candidate of philosophical sciences, head of sector of science and education sociology of Institute of Philosophy under Siberian branch of Russian Academy of Sciences - told us about that after studying how happened interaction of two cultures – the Russian and native nations of the North - on sample of Russian Orthodox Church mission activity in the Ob North.

- What are the materials of investigation basement?

- Work “Anthropological analysis of cultures interaction problem” was carried out on base of orthodox missions in the Ob North materials studying. Now it is territory of Khanty-Mansi and Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Areas. There are unique materials in Tobolsk archives – memories of missioners, itinerary, datebooks, newspapers…

- You write that unique situation appears in Ob North in relation of interaction of two cultures. What is uniqueness of it?

- Khanty, Mansi and Nenets people live here - nations with very interesting culture. And me, and my colleagues consider that, really, situation in Ob North was quite unique – especially on background of talks about the Russification o native population and loss of its originality.


Let’s take economic aspect. Do you know that Russians had not right in principle to get as property land, forests, places of fishing? Government issued special degrees about it – one can become familiar with documents.

But christening?! It is known the only one experience of forced christening connected with epoch of Peter the Great. In those time Filaret Leshchinsky christened by force 40 thousand people. He burned local idols, destructed objects of cultural heritage of northern people. He drove all in river and christened… But it was the only one such occurrence! Christening was even banned from middle to end of XVIII century to avoid any tension, conflicts. Voluntary basis was the only way of christened. 100-200 people were christened a year in XIX century - there are document confirming that statistics. Compare position of Russian Orthodox Church with actions of Catholic Church in South America, what happened with American Indians on territory of modern USA – very big difference, softly to say…

- And what is belief in two different religions – phenomenon existed in the Russian North?

It just confirmed that there was no any forces Russification. Belief in two different religions is cultural phenomenon: combination in opinions of native population elements of Christianity and heathenism. It appeared itself in quite fanciful manner: people went to church after sacrifice… Or - spread lips on icons by fat or blood. Native population liked Easter very much – one could kiss everybody, present gifts…

What Russification can we speak about if in case of local holydays dates coincidence and the fasts exclusion was made obligatory for people could keep holiday. It was made because of understanding necessary to respect traditions of native nations.

- Did the Russian missioners teach literacy too?

- Of course. Namely missioners translated Holy Scripture in local languages creating literacy for nations of the North. Special programmes were even developed. It is known such occurrence: federal centre - in modern words - sent instructions how to teach people gardening, agricultu¬re… Missioners, of course, were surprised because they understood that children of native nations needed education in quite other things.

Literary, of course, is the result of orthodox missions work. One of such missions worked in famous Abalak monastery. Parents paid nothing for studying in this school. Church signed document and took liability to provide children nourishment, provision and so on. So called “oaths” remained in archives (or tamga in local language), father of child confirmed in document that he gave child to school and would not take him back during two years. Generic stamp - tamga - was put in lower part of document as confirmation.

- What missioner was the most famous?

There are many interesting names and destinies. Let’s take, for example, father Irinarkh (Ivan Shemanovsky). School-orphanage was opened in Obdorsk by his initiative. Children of the Russians and native population studies there together. He became first ethnographer of these places – he wrote most interesting capital works. His destiny was very interesting and not simple: further he worked in mission in Korea, he went through siege during one of conflicts in Kirgizia. He left us more than 50 articles.

- And what about his pupils?

It is necessary to say here first of all about Peter Khatanzeev who is considered to the first na-tionnal enlightener and writer of Khanty. He studied in school of father Irinarkh and, obviously, learned much there. In any case namely he founded first national Khanty school in 1921. Let us note that he founded that school together with Russian teacher M.Protopopov.

- What is the result of cultural interaction in the Russian North?

- Local population became literary, they became familiar with Russian culture - and it was great event undoubtedly. Native nations of the North understood that they were not along in the world, that they were citizens of great state of whole world. And, most important, that process was not forced in any way - it was voluntary exclusively: nobody forced anybody. That is why memory about orthodox missions in Russian North kept most fond!

Viewed : 2716   Commented: 6

Author: Владимир Кузменкин

Publication date : 12 September 2011 16:40

Source: The world and we

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