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Vladimir Shkolny: “The state is obliged to fight against religious extremism!”

The expert of our portal Vladimir Shkolny is the Candidate of Pedagogics, the associate professor of UNESCO on studying of world cultures and religions of the faculty of the International relations (FIR) of the B. N. Yeltsin Kyrgyz-Russian (Slavic) University (KRSU) (Bishkek), the psychologist, the historian, the expert in religious extremism in the youth environment. Quite recently he wrote the new book. A release of the manual «Religions in the history of world culture» many people in Kyrgyzstan called as very remarkable event. Why? The author told us about it:

- As the numerous social polls and researches show, for the last twenty years there is a process of the mass appeal of wide sectors of society of the Kyrgyz Republic (KR) to this or that religion. The greatest interest in the questions concerning the religious sphere shows the modern youth.

Today the understanding of the habitat, the surrounding world with values peculiar to it and at the heart of which the religion often lies is especially important for successful life and activity of each citizen of our state. At the same time, from year to year an acute shortage is felt in society of our state in available, simple and intelligible information on an origin of religions, their formation and influence on the course of world history, on a religion role in culture of these or those people or the whole state or region.

That fact that it is the time to look at a problem of religious safety of the state in a different way is important and actual: taking into account spiritual and moral and social and economic development of the country, from a position of spiritual, ideological, information and psychological security. The manual «Religions in the history of world culture» is very timely and actual in this respect.

Though the subject of studying isn’t the new, the present manual is rather new on the configuration and approach to the considered problems in the relations of the person and religion. One of the main objectives of the manual is to show that the religion proceeds from inherent in the person as to a species of features. They, differently developing in different cultures, remain universal and cause that general that is in all religions of the world — feelings, thoughts, expectations of the person.

Much attention is paid to ethical aspects of religions. There is no preference of any religions in that manual. All given examples are reviewed as components of history of world culture. My position, as the author at writing a material of the present manual is the full world outlook neutrality in relation to any religion.

The most important data on history of religions, their roles in life of society and separately taken person are systematized in the manual.

I am the believing person. Though as the psychologist and religion expert, I can tell that I believe in God a little in own way instead of as «it is necessary» to the Christian, Muslim or Buddhist. I hope that the manual written by me will help many people to find answers to questions exciting them from religious studies area.

- — What are the reasons of manual creation? How actual is it for today’s Kyrgyzstan?


- There were several reasons. The main of them is the lack of the generalized and reliable information what is the religion as such, what its forms, directions, principles of influence and impact on the person, consequences of this influence. I tried to collect all this in a whole there was the present manual.

As for relevance, so I will answer in the following way: from all values existing on the earth, religions for mankind at this stage of development of our civilization are meanwhile one of the most significant values. What will be farther knows only the Most High. We aren’t let to know it. Meanwhile one is clear exactly: religion in our life is the major cultural factor, a criterion and a source of our moral. And especially the laws. Meanwhile there are no other alternatives to this phenomenon. I mean those religions which underwent testing and test by time, instead of all those «new formations» with which all modern vital space teems. In this matter it is very important also to be able to separate grains from a ryegrass.

Withdrawal from values offered by true religions as it is visible on the example of some European and Arab countries is fraught with negative consequences …

— What does your book represent?

- The manual «Religions in the history of world culture» consists of two parts. The first part is intended for studying by pupils of the 10th classes at the rate of 1 hour per week (34 hours per academic year). The consideration of the following questions in four sections is offered to attention of pupils:

- religion as phenomenon of human culture;
- early forms of religious consciousness of mankind;
- polytheistic beliefs of people of the world;
- national and regional religions.

The second part is intended for studying by pupils of the 11th classes at the rate of 1 hour per week too (34 hours per academic year). The studying of the following questions in five sections is offered to attention of pupils:

- world religions;
- Christianity;
- Islam;
- nonconventional religious movements;
- religion and society.

Each paragraph comes to an end with control questions for self-examination and self-preparation. By the order of the Ministry of Education and Science of the KR the manual written by me was given the status «Manual».

— What is the audience of the book?

- Previously within eight years this course passed approbation for studying senior classes of pilot comprehensive schools of Bishkek. Actually, it also was written for them. But after passing of examination in the organizations responsible for it, the present manual was recommended not only for studying at schools, but also in higher education institutions. And also it was recommended to teachers, heads of education establishments, the staff of government institutions and in general all interested religion questions.

- Will not only school students, but also the staff of power structures study it?


- In 2013 there was an educational and methodical manual «Nonconventional religions and possible prospects of their development in KR», written by me in a co-authorship with N. M. Galkina. It was recommended by the State commission for religions at K. R. President to studying as well to the staff of power structures. As a result it turned out so that the manual which has left in this year «Religions in the history of world culture» on the semantic loading strongly has something in common with last year one and well supplements it. Therefore, after examination passing at security officers, the preset manual was highly appreciated at them, and similarly it was recommended to studying to the staff of power divisions.

— What are the reasons of interest strengthening of young people to religion?

-In my opinion, there are several reasons. I will note the main of them. First is the total absence of uniform state ideology and policy in the relation, as all society and concerning the youth first of all. And they could cement and fasten our society, sending it to the future of general prosperity. Without them as the centuries-old history of our civilization shows, one state had no normal and safe future yet.

The second main reason is that the youth always differed impatience. The impatience, increased that young generation recognizes less the values of the previous generations and that young people in more than twenty last years already were full of lie of non-obligation of government institutions just pushes them on a way of extremism. All that worst of all is on a way of religious extremism.

In other words, because of a lack of life experience the youth in the main weight considers that bright future can be constructed by violence already almost tomorrow. Finally in this case they only roll down on Bulgakov Sharikov’s position: it is necessary violently to take away everything from all, and then to divide equally among all! And here then the happiness will come to the earth … So it never still happened in the history of mankind. And if it happened very rarely, so always came to an end very deplorable. The youth, unfortunately, even guesses it seldom. Knowledge from this area especially catastrophically doesn’t suffice to them …

This problem can’t be solved at separately taken level. It is solved only at the appendix of all efforts from outside both all state, and each separately taken citizen. Otherwise there is no other way.

Proceeding from everything above told, it is necessary to bring up the valid and thoughtful relation to religion at youth. After all the religion is the part of our history and culture. It is the base of human moral. At least, world religions don’t give us at this stage simply to run wild under the influence of the western ideals and values intensively imposed to us.

The religion meanwhile has to occupy one of the main places in an ideological field of any society. The question is only who can be allowed to work with believers. Especially with youth! Agree that there are many any easy riders in a bosom of any religion — there are a lot of examples. The most dangerous in this sphere is the religion and policy merge. Here it isn’t necessary to wait something good from that, except religious extremism!

— You tell about religion to school students in Bishkek. What are your impressions of communication with them?

- As I already spoke, interest at the population is big, and every year it increases. I think that it will grow further.

In this question, if one may say so, other phenomenon strains me a little. Behind absence at schools of experts in the field of religious studies, in KR this course will teach everyone — from historians to cleaners. Some our higher education institutions annually let out graduate religion experts, but as far as I know, still any of them didn’t go to work at school. Most likely, because of inappropriate payment of ungrateful work of the teacher.

— You made the research about interests of youth at schools. Can you tell about your supervision?

- The youth addresses recently to religion more and more. It seems to me that this phenomenon has a little enough weighty explanations:
- The main reason is youth disbelief in those values which the last 20−30 years confess the senior generation;

- The youth got a bit tired from those values which are imposed strenuously by the West: permissiveness, unisex, nihilism etc. Consequence of this rejection is the formation of spiritual vacuum at young generation … The soul human, as we know, doesn’t suffer emptiness … And the religion, after all, has multi-thousand-year roots in minds of people.

The young growth often has no only authentic data on religions … Also has no skill of communication with a religious cult. Here also there is a danger of coming of any easy riders from religion, tricksters, fanatics (read — unbalanced mentally people) and other fundamentalists to a youth scene. That we also have recently.

Therefore I also undertook so hard work, as writing of manuals on religious studies for youth. Both as psychologist, and as historian, and as religion expert and plus as the impartial scientist. I hope that the result of this my work will be positive.

In this question still a lot of things rest against psychology of the person. In due time E. Eriksson output the theory of epigenesis about eight stages in life of each person. Here I would add two more culmination points (in a co-authorship to him — don’t consider for megalomania! Simply I have the experience of work as psychologist including scientific. If the memory doesn’t change, so I work in this field for 23 years): 26 years and 36 years (meanwhile — purely empirically and slightly hypothetically).

Why namely these points in human life? Simply because in the first point the formation of an orientation of the identity of the average person comes to an end (who I am and what I want from this life, and in this life?). And in the second point the formation of stability of the personality (I stand on the own two feet in the life experience already enough) comes to an end.

Here we just also approached to a question of youth maximalism and tendency to extremism. Till 26 years the people weren’t defined what concrete (and how exactly!) they want in life. And during the same period (from 12 to 24 years) at the person the pubertal period occurs and comes to an end, a hormonal background and organism structure are reconstructed, in many respects changes the relation to world around and beings occupying him (including people) …

Well, many things occur. And, first of all, they want to mature, become somewhat quicker weighty and categorical, authoritative and recognized. But after all this is acquired over the years. Try to prove it to youth! It didn’t gain independence till the end and already want the world to be remade. And not in the vast future, but today. Or tomorrow at the worst. But not later in any way. There is a lot of flatness…

There is a lot of flatness, but experience and wisdom doesn’t suffice… And here there is also the lack of uniform state ideological policy concerning the youth … And here also mistrust to ideals of the previous generations and mistrust to the government at all levels who often break the word… And here still abstract belief … And here besides domestic easy riders, various sweet-voiced foreign religious emissaries come to a scene the latent task of whom often is to confuse the issue in our independent and sovereign pond …

Prerequisites to emergence of youth maximalism and extremism, as they say, are available. From described above questions and problems I just also mention many in the manual — it is, so to say, the Red string of it.

— The manual gives the knowledge. And what the numerous missionaries who have filled the country give to Kyrgyzstan?

- Irrespective of the direction, whether it would be Christian, Islamic or others, the dangerous to society was that which destroy the mentality of the person — destructive one. And also that one which call for violence, Nazism etc.

The whole section is allocated to the destructive religious organizations in the manual written by me. They are: «Church of Scientology», «White Brotherhood», «Association Church», Sun Myung Moon, «Jesus Christ church of sacred last days», «Jehovah's Witnesses», «Hizb ut-Tahrir al-Islami», «Islamic movement of Turkestan», «Akromiya», «Jamiat al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun», «Wahhabites» of all colours, «International Society of Consciousness of Krishna», «Satanists» etc. This list is far not the full …

It is possible to add still the following about «work» of similar religious «new formations» (by analogy to oncology). Here everything is rather simple. Very seldom it is possible to meet the person who is happy with everything in the life, and has no problems or difficulties. Further it is a trick: the person should «present» «dream» and take him to it by the thorny road.

At sectarians it looks slightly more simply: one of sacred books is taken (The bible, the Koran, Veda or another — it is without difference), and selectively competently quoted on bright future. And then on behalf of the Most High that «Revelation Road», «Truth way» and so forth is shown.

I think that it will be pertinent to comment on some words told some earlier. In particular it is a little about mentality of the person. More precisely about his belief. More precisely — Belief. Belief in fine, belief in love, belief in the truth etc.

And so, the mentality of the person is arranged a little inconsistent in this respect. And the human belief is formed from young nails in two directions.

The first is concrete belief. I. e. I won’t believe while I won’t see myself, while won’t hear and while won’t touch. In other words, until my three channels of perception of world around (visual, audio and tactile) won’t confirm existence of studied object.

The second is abstract belief as a product of the abstract thinking, inherent exclusively only to the person. I. e. I believe because it is abstract (and even it is absurd)! Human belief in God is an example of that.

It is impossible to see, hear or touch the Most High. In sacred books there are even preventions on this subject: God is so fine, perfect, ubiquitous and all-powerful that having seen him, having heard or having touched Him, the person will simply die of shock of the happiness caused by presence near so perfect Being! From here there is the question: how the person throughout the millennia believes in the One Who can’t neither be seen, nor to hear, to touch?! Here is the example of abstract belief.

By the way, in clinical psychiatry there is such small joke definition (with very serious consequences): «When you address to God, it is a prayer. When God addresses to you, it is schizophrenia!». And so, just on this joke definition also it is worth treating people to whom there was «revelation from above», or they heard «God's voice» … The diagnosis here is ALWAYS unambiguous: or there is the easy rider trickster before you, or the person making similar statements has schizophrenia in this or that manifestation …

It is possible only to believe in God. And we, people, can’t be simply awarded by feedback. As a last resort —(The prophet Mohammed is an example to that) his intermediary envoys can be sent Them to the best of us: angels, archangels, cherubs, Serafim etc. By the way, it is possible even to determine the importance of this or that prophet by his envoy. The most important archangel — Jibril (Gabriel) was sent to the Prophet Mohammed, for example, for transfer of contents of the Koran. Already one it shows on credibility of God Revelation in relation to Mohammed.

Some easy riders sometimes try to speculate on it: the pier, an angel from God came to me, and gave «revelations»! In that case it is enough to lead: how it looked, who presented, and what voice gave those «revelations»? Here the liar also comes to light! In sacred books there are exact descriptions of similar inhabitants of heaven that easy riders just often don’t know …

It is vey sad, but the average person is very trustful … And they have to include the knowledge (which sometimes happens insufficiently) and concrete belief, so, no, we want miracles always, and therefore the abstract belief joins! Especially if is free.

To a great regret, owing to the laziness and short-sightedness, the average person doesn’t know contents of sacred books, or it is elementary — can’t owing to rather limited outlook, an outlook and concepts, to understand and acquire the elements of these great books.

And here various easy riders step on the stage from religions. Something like Kot Basilio and Lisa Alice from the movie «Buratino» (film studio «Belarusfilm», 1974). By the way, the song which they sang a duet in a tavern of «Three gudgeons» is the obvious anthem of similar easy riders. Listen at a leisure, and you would be convinced of it!

Any young man or the girl without wise, far-sighted and impartial mentor it is competent and correct will hardly be able to understand depths of religions. And, I can tell it with the full responsibility, still any person couldn’t escape from sectarian networks independently. Here the qualified help of competent experts is always necessary. Plus obligatory knowledge of working methods of this or that sect.

— After all they have methods of influence …

- There are special psychological techniques on violation of self-identification of the person both as persons, and as family member, and as member of society. Thanks to these techniques from consciousness and subconsciousness I am etched his already existing, and his place is filled with concept of only his accessory only to sect … Approximately the groups of suicide bombers, shahids, etc. are formed also by the same techniques.

Here such people sometimes are brought to me. And not only children … And how will communicate to such man … There is the emptiness in eyes, and only one desire is written on a face — to return to already habitual «family sect» environment… And there are no other interests … It is really awful!

Sometimes it is possible to help people. But most often — no … It is some reasons of similar failures, and I perfectly know them and understand:
If the person was raked over the coals within 2−3 years, so the time for his rehabilitation has to be at least as much. Sometimes permanently, with isolation from the environment of his dwelling. I have no such opportunity, and families often don’t possess sufficient resources for this purpose. It is the state …

After primary rehabilitation course, the vacuum in brains of the victim should be filled with vigorous positive activity. It is frequent neither I, nor (her) his family, nor the state can’t make …

In many states there are rehabilitation centres already for a long time for work with victims of sects and various religious easy riders. We have no such centres, and their opening isn’t planned at all.

Therefore K. R. successfully continues to lose fight for brains and souls of the youth. And if so proceeds further, so will lose finally soon.

— Was it difficult to publish such book today?

Yes — it is a good question! In the Russian Federation this issue was resolved and solves at the level of Ministry of Defence since the end of the ninetieth years of last century. Several groups of authors already released some versions of textbooks and manuals on religious studies for schools and higher education institutions — I practically all re-read them. In something I agree with their concepts, and in something — not really. Therefore I decided to approach this question about some other positions. As a result the manual «Religions in the history of world culture» turned out.

To write the similar book, remaining impartial in every respect is very difficult task. But to publish it then is a task of complexity almost not conceding the previous. And this is with the fact that the need in similar educational (and not only that) literature in KR ripened already for a long time.

This need is systematically sounded at all levels — from K. R. President to pages of «yellow» press. But … As soon as the issue concerns the edition, replications and distribution on the interested organizations then, as they say, what kind uncle would come and all this would make, and state officials have no time, means, in general it is time on a meeting necessarily of similar literature! It is a familiar picture of slow interested-uninterested state officialdom …

It is good still that there are people, who really have the feeling «it is offensive for the power» as one film star told. And this time, as well as at the edition of the manual on nonconventional religions in KR last year, the present manual was sponsored by Public Fund «Unity», the head of which is the executive director O. B. Sernetsky. Once again thank him for it!

— What are your further creative plans?

- There is a lot of plans for the future. They include also writing of the doctoral dissertation with the subsequent its protection, and it is a lot of still any miscellaneous. Among all other, I work the second year on the book in which I describe psychological manipulative technicians on involvement of people in this or that sect, and a binding of adherents to it. It is almost already ready, it is necessary only to grind some sides. I try to write this book with language, simple and available to any non-specialist, that it could distinguish the traps placed by sects quickly.

Viewed : 1846   Commented: 0

Author: Vladimir Kuzmenkin

Publication date : 30 September 2014 01:00

Source: The world and we

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