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What does the white paper of France speak about?

White paper is the name of the doctrine concerning defence and national security of France. The strategic concept, distribution of the budget, relationship with various countries registered in it. White paper at Charles de Gaulle in 1972 was devoted to strategic independence of France and also estimated real opportunities of its military power.
After the end of cold war the military-political leadership of France decided that there is no threat of large-scale aggression henceforth, but there were other problems. Finally, by 1994 the document (it is called today as «White paper on defence and national security») was prepared, in which the new directions of strategy of national security and cardinal changes which should be made in armed forces of the country were stated. Since 1996 the French army passed to the contract principle of completing, Paris decided to refuse from overland components of the strategic nuclear weapon and, on the contrary, to increase airmobile opportunities of the armed forces for the purpose of ensuring fast transfer of divisions of fast reaction to remote regions of the planet.
However since then the international military-political situation suffered rather essential changes. There were new nonconventional threats which demanded from Paris the revision of the armed forces role in the future. Now they are obliged to join in fight against the international terrorist network as in France and in the countries of the French Africa, both abroad — as a part of multinational coalition groups and also to give every possible help to civil departments.
The following doctrine of France accepted in 2008 proceeds from ascertaining of that fact that the situation in the world in recent years seriously changed, having become at the same time less stable and less predictable. The attention to such dangers as cyber attacks, epidemics, climatic disasters is paid in white paper. The zones which from the strategic point of view are sensitive for France are designated in it. It is «crisis areas» from Atlantic to the Indian Ocean, the western coast of Africa, the region of the Antilles — Guiana.
The main idea of the white paper in 1972 was «containment», in 1994 — «projection of force», so «white paper on defence and national security» of 2008 — «knowledge and forecasting».
The last white paper was published on April 29, 2013. The main tendencies of the previous book remain in the new version of white paper. In the document five «basic strategic functions (activities)» are formulated which the national armed forces and the relevant state departments have to be ready to carry out.
1. Possession of necessary information and ability to anticipate the events. It is meant as ability of military department and agencies of safety to collect all necessary information on the potential opponent, new threats and challenges that, by calculations of authors of the document, guarantees to France the preservation of autonomy in a question of decision-making and possession of a strategic initiative. It is natural that the fundamental part is assigned to all types of investigation here.
2. The prevention or action ahead. The main goal is emergence prevention of serious threats or challenges of national security of France. Here it is planned to use all range of means: diplomatic, economic, military, legal, cultural, and also their combination coordinated at national or international level. The need to contain two military bases in Africa is specified among prime military measures (one on the coast of the Atlantic Ocean and another on the Indian Ocean) and to strengthen the French military presence in the region of the Persian Gulf (Abu Dhabi in the United Arab Emirates is chosen as basic point).
3. Containment which actually is understood as the nuclear containment remaining one of priority means of national security ensuring of the republic. According to its military-political management and authors of the white paper on defence, the nuclear control is the faithful guarantor of safety and independence of France. Its only purpose is prevention of aggression from any foreign state and harming national interests of the country, in whatever view and from what party similar threats would follow.
On the other hand, the white paper on defence highlights that in spite of the fact that Paris intends to rely on the nuclear weapon until considers it effective for prevention of aggression, France acts and will support further nuclear disarmament, against distribution of the nuclear, chemical and biological weapon and means of its delivery.
4. The defence, which is understood as direct providing with military and police methods of safety of the population and integrity of the territory of France and «ability of society in general to be restored after strong crisis and to continue activity as before». The important part is assigned to creation and operation of effective systems of supervision, communication, using the means of land, sea, aviation and space basing here. The solution of this task (function) is assigned at the same time to military department and also services of internal security of the state and system of civil defence. Among other things, for example, the creation of warning system of rocket attack by 2020 on the basis of over-the-horizon radar station and space systems is provided and also allocation of 10 thousand military personnel in a reserve for the help to civil services in elimination of consequences of emergency situations or natural disasters.
5. Intervention which admits to one of the main methods of use of the French armed forces for protection of national security interests. And the prevention and intervention are inseparable tasks which need to be solved only together. The military-political leadership of France and authors of the white paper on defence consider that the republic should concentrate the attention on ensuring national interests in such important areas as Atlantic and the Mediterranean, the Persian Gulf and the Arabian Sea and also the Indian Ocean. Exactly here in medium-term prospect the interests of France and other European states will be concentrated and the main threats of their national security exactly will proceed from here.
Besides, in view of constantly increasing role of Asia in world political and economic life, the white paper on defence contains the requirement to pay more attention to this region, projecting force from the water area of the Indian Ocean. Still Paris won’t lose sight of east and western coasts of Africa and also the region of Sahara, including for the purpose of prevention of a drug traffic and fight against the international terrorism. In this regard the French government intends to revise the available agreements in the field of defence and safety with the African states and to strengthen cooperation with them in this sphere.
Armed forces will also keep large groups of troops in a zone of West India — the French Guiana the main objectives of which are protection of the space center in Kourou and fight against a drug traffic. The number of the contingents of gendarmerie and security forces in overseas departments of France is planned to be increased besides.
According to white paper, by 2025 France will have opportunities both for ensuring the help and for carrying out independent military operations. Strengthening of investigation potential and special forces are supposed which play a key role in the last military operations.
«The tactical composition of land forces will total 66 thousand people as a part of 7 mixed crews two of which will have opportunity to conduct active actions against the opponent equipped with heavy arms. These forces will have 200 main battle tanks, 250 average tanks, 2700 multi-purpose armored combat vehicles, 140 reconnaissance and attack and 115 multi-purpose helicopters and also 30 tactical pilotless vehicles. Naval Forces will total 4 underwater rocket carriers with ballistic missiles, 6 multi-purpose submarines, 1 aircraft carrier, 15 frigates of the first rank, 6 guard-ships, 15 ships of waterway grand division security, 3 command and force projection vehicles. As a part of Naval Forces also there will be a sea patrol aircraft and mine and trawl forces providing protection of communications and carrying out operations abroad. The Air Force will total 225 warplanes (Rafale), including the deck one, about 50 tactical transport planes (A400M and CN-235), 7 planes of far radar detection (E-3F), 12 refuellers (A330MRTT), 12 pilotless vehicles — reconnaissance planes on turboprop engine (MALE), light reconnaissance planes and 8 batteries of anti-aircraft missile air defence systems (SAMP/T)».
In the white paper the certain head describes the relations with NATO and the EU and further plans within these unions, exactly: preservation of the sovereignty of France and independence of its decisions, preservation of commitment to North Atlantic alliance and continuation of integration within the European Union.

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Author: Vladimir Kuzmenkin

Publication date : 28 November 2014 00:58

Source: The world and we

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